Chapter Four: Some of the innovations of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab

 

If one analyses Islamic history objectively, to ascertain who is responsible for introducing “Evil Innovations” into the Deen, then the name Umar Ibne Al-Khattab comes to the top of the list. His contributions via “Evil Innovations” are immense. Let us quote here the viewpoint of Maulla Ali (as) regarding these Bidahs of Umar.

Hizb at Tahir states:

“Khilafah” by Hizb at-Tahrir we read the following:
“… As for the appointment of the six people by ‘Umar, it was a nomination to them by him upon the request of the Muslims. Then ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Auf consulted the Muslims about whom they wanted from the six people. The majority wanted ‘Ali if he adhered to the practices of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, otherwise they wanted ‘Uthman. When ‘Ali rejected to adhere to the practices (/Sunnah/Bidah) of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Auf gave the pledge to ‘Uthman and the people gave their pledge “

More Sunni References:

  1. al Bidayah wa al Nihaya Volume 7 page 146
  2. Sharh Fiqh Akbar page 66 “Fadail Naas badh ai Rasulullah”
  3. Iqd al Fareed Volume 2 page 213
  4. Tareekh Abu Fida Volume 1 page 166 Dhikr Maqaathil Umar
  5. Tareekh Khamees Volume 2 page 255
  6. Tareekh Tabari Volume 5 page 2793 Dhikr Sunnat Chapter 23
  7. Tareekh Kamil Volume 3 page 35 Dhikr Shura

Can anyone really understand this concept of khilafaath? It was so important that:

  • The Sheikhain ran towards Saqifa, abandoning the funeral of Rasulullah (s).
  • The Sahaba whilst debating over the khilafath at Saqifa Bani Sa’ada abused and attacked one another
  • Abu Bakr sought to secure Imam ‘Ali (as)’s bayya via duress and Umar threatened to set on fire the home of Sayyida Fatima (as) with her family and eminent Sahaba inside if bayyah was not given.

Despite such importance, Imam ‘Ali (as) turned his back on leadership as he refused to abide by the Bidah of Umar. Let’s see some of the Evil Innovations of Umar, so that we can understand why Maulla Ali (as) rejected the Caliphate as he refused to be bound by such innovations.

Umar’s innovations in Islamic Sharia in dealing with Christians

The man who really turned Orthodox Islam into a Racist & xenophobic movement, that is seen / depicted today, was the Caliph Umar.

Many do not know that the vast bulk of Sunni Islamic rituals & beliefs were put into place by Caliph Umar, and that they were based on ‘his’ interpretations of the Qur’an and the Prophet’s (saww) Sunnah.
When Umar made a peace treaty with the Christians of Syria, he offered them entirely new terms by drafting a document that sought to humiliate them. These new terms never existed during the life of Rasool Allah [saww]. Sufyan Thawri, Tabari, Shibli Numani, Ibne Taymiyyah, Ibne Hazm and many more Ulama and Fuqaha of Ahle-Sunnah reported this peace of treaty in their works.

Let us see all these new terms closely.

  1. Christians should not hinder any Muslim from staying in their churches for three days during which they offer them food and serve the Muslims.Comment:
    Rasool Allah saww also made several pacts with Christians in his Life. Can Salafies show us any such term by Rasool Allah saww (i.e. he ordered the Christians to not to hinder any Muslim from staying in their churches for 2 days)?
  2. They ought to give them their seats if the Muslims wish to sit down.
  3. Christians should not resemble Muslims in anything, such as their dress, tiaras, turbans or shoes or parting of the hair. They must wear long hats.
  4. They should not ride a donkey with a saddle.
  5. They must shave their foreheads.Comment:
    Shibli Numani in his ‘Al-Farooq’ tried to defend Umar by saying that he only asked not to wear the dresses that Muslims used to wear, but to wear those dresses which were their original dresses. And all that was not for humiliating the Christians, but only in order to maintain the different National characteristics.

    Our simple question is:

    ‘Can Shibli Numani (or his followers, as he has already passed away) produce a single incident from Life of Rasool Allah saww wherein such orders were issued? Didn’t Muhammad know that keeping and maintaining the different national characteristics is so important that he would ask the Christians not to resemble the Muslims in anything’.

    And what about Allah? Did He also forget to reveal it to his Prophet [saww], in order to remember him this important thing?

    And what about banning to ride a donkey with saddle? Was it too for maintaining different national characteristics? And if maintaining this differences between 2 nations is so important, then why Rasool Allah [saww] didn’t order for it?

    And what about shaving the foreheads? One of the most humiliating things that one can do to other. What lame excuse can be given for this?

  6. They should not bury their dead next to Muslims and must not read loudly in their churches
  7. They should not mourn loudly over their dead. Comment:
    Where did Rasool Allah saww ban Christians from doing this and their other religious practices?
  8. The Christian clan of Banu Taghlab was prohibited to baptise their children. Comment:
    Shibli Numani tried to defend Umar by saying that nobody knew if a child would have become Muslim later. That’s why Umar banned this practice of baptism.

    Our simple question is:
    Didn’t Christians, who got baptism as child, later on become Muslims? Did Rasool Allah [saww] ever ban Christians for doing baptism in his times, due to the fear of child becoming Muslim later on?

    Sunni References:

    • “Alfarooq” by Shibli Numani, part 2nd, page 288-291, published by Maktaba Rehmania, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan.
    • Ibne Taymiyyah in his Fatawa, vol. 28, page 652-654.
    • Ibne Hazm, in his Al-Muhalla (“The Sweetened”,Vol. 4, part 7)and many more…..

Taliban’s banning Hindus to wear the dress that Muslims wear

A good example is the famous Taliban dictate on Hindus, which has its origins in Umar’s Fatwa (i.e. Christians should not resemble Muslims in anything, such as their dress, tiaras, turbans or shoes or parting of the hair… etc.)

Many Muslims condemned this act of Taliban and considered it to be against Islam and humanity. But they don’t know that majority of their Islamic rituals & beliefs were put into place by Caliph Umar based on ‘his’ innovations in Islamic Sharia.

Taliban did nothing new, but they only followed Umar’s Sunnah. So, it is Umar who has to be mainly condemned for these innovations in Islamic Sharia. Condemnation of Taliban is a secondary thing as compared to Umar.

Umar’s innovations have brought a bad name to Islam

The Christian propaganda machine has done its by citing these innovations of Umar, as proof that Islam is an inhuman religion. It allows Muslims to humiliate the followers of other religions.

The reality is the Islam of Muhammad [saww] was aloof from these inhuman practices. Islam is a religion of kindness, pity and compassion. Non-Muslims have full rights to follow their religion and no one is allowed to humiliate them.

Unfortunately, all the Sunni Fuqaha have taken these shameful and humiliating innovations of Umar as part of their religion and made them the part of “Islamic Sharia”. Instead of condemning these Sunnah (/Bidahs) of Umar (which are totally contrary to the teachings of Islam), they praise Umar for these cruel innovations.

What Umar did, was a thing of the past. But who is more guilty “Today”?

EITHER:

1)Christians? (Who use propaganda to stoke anti Muslim feelings Islam by citing these Fatwas)

OR:

2)The Fuqaha of Ahle Sunnah? (Who have taken these cruel innovations as part of their religion)

Modern Islamic Movements who want to create Islamic States

Unfortunately, almost all modern Sunni Islamic movements who want to create Islamic-States, are not prepared to blame Umar for these innovations and they have given the green light for the Islamic Sharia to carry out these inhuman / humiliating laws. For example, Maulana Maudoodi made no criticism upon it in his book “The Islamic State” as was the case with Hasan al Banna founder of the “Ikhwanul Muslimeen”.

Similarly Taqiyy-ud-Din al-Nabahani of “Hizbul Tahrir” discussed these innovations of Umar in his book “The Islamic State”. He refused to deem these actions of Umar as cruel innovations, but tried to prove that they were not as inhuman as it sounded on paper (same approach as Shibli Numani).

All these parties were for more advanced in thinking than the Taliban and yet in some instances they have failed to show themselves as better that this clan of rabid barbarians. We are yet to find any condemnation of Umar’s innovations regarding the humiliation of Non-Muslim minorities, by all these parties.

Umar Ibn Khattab innovating in relation to the laws on divorce

Allah (swt) has told very clearly in “Sura Talaq”, the way of giving divorce:

O Prophet! When ye do divorce women, divorce them at their prescribed periods, and count (accurately), their prescribed periods: And fear Allah your Lord: and turn them not out of their houses, nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open lewdness, those are limits set by Allah: and any who transgresses the limits of Allah, does verily wrong his (own) soul: thou knowest not if perchance Allah will bring about thereafter some new situation.

Thus when they fulfil their term appointed, either take them back on equitable terms or part with them on equitable terms; and take for witness two persons from among you, endued with justice, and establish the evidence (as) before Allah. Such is the admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day. And for those who fear Allah, He (ever) prepares a way out,
Al-Qur’an Surah 65, Ayah 1-2 (Translation by Yusuf Ali)

There have been several innovations made by Umar in the Shar’i practice of issuing divorce.

Umar innovated and changed the ruling of Rasool Allah’s by treating three pronounced divorces at one and same time as one

Let us see the testimony of Ibn Abbas that Umar changed the Islamic Shar’ia by introducing a new law:

Abu al-Sahba’ said to Ibn ‘Abbas: Enlighten us with your information whether the three divorces (pronounced at one and the same time) were not treated as one during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and Abu Bakr. He said: It was in fact so, but when during the caliphate of ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him) people began to pronounce divorce frequently, he allowed them to do so (to treat pronouncements of three divorces in a single breath as one).
Sahih Muslim, Book 009, Number 3493

Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (Allah be pleased with him) (was treated) as one. But Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them.
Sahih Muslim, Book 009, Number 3491

Abu Sahba’ said to Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them): Do you know that three (divorces) were treated as one during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him), and that of Abu Bakr, and during three (years) of the caliphate of Umar (Allah be pleased with him)? Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) said: Yes.
Sahih Muslim, Book 009, Number 3492

Where is the Salafi fatwa on Umar now?

Double Standards!

Salafi Claim that Talaq Bid’ah (i.e. even if wife is divorced in state of Menstruation) is valid and legal

Nay, instead of declaring it against Islam, Salafies keep on following the Sunnah of Umar. Abdul Hamid Siddiqui states:

Abdul Hamid Siddiqui, a Salafi Alim and translator of Sahih Muslim, writes at the beginning of the chapter of Divorce:

“Divorce is of three kinds: the Ahsan, or most laudable, the Hasan, or laudable, and the Bid’a or irregular.

Talaq Ahsan or the most laudable divorce is where the husband repudiates his wife by making one pronouncement within the term of Tahr (purity. when the woman is not passing through the period of menses) during which he has not had sexual intercourse with her, and she is left to observe her ‘Idda.

Talaq Hasan or laudable divorce is where a husband repudiates an enjoyed wife by three sentences of divorce, in three Tuhrs.

Talaq Bid’a or irregular divorce is where a husband repudiates his wife by three divorces at once. According to the majority of the jurists, the Talaq holds good, but it is against the spirit of the Shari’ah, and, therefore, the man who follows this course in divorce is an offender in the eye of Islamic Law.”

How can this Salafi Alim still say that Talaq (Bid’a) is valid? Look at the Sunnah of Rasool Allah [saww].

Ibn ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with them) reported that he divorced his wife while she was menstruating during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him). ‘Umar b. Khattib (Allah be pleased with him) asked Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) about it, whereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Command him (‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar) to take her back (and keep her) and pronounce divorce when she is purified and she again enters the period of menstruation and she is again purified (after passing the period of menses), and then if he so desires he may keep her and if he desires divorce her (finally) before touching her (without having an intercourse with her), for that is the period of waiting (‘ldda) which God, the Exalted and Glorious, has commanded for the divorce of women.
Sahih Muslim, Book 009, Number 3473

If Talaq Bida’a really holds, then how Rasool Allah [saww] ordered Ibn Umar to take his divorced wife back? Need we to say more about the validity of Talaq Bida’a?

Abdul Hamid Siddiqui states:

“…the Talaq (Bid’a) holds good, but it is against the spirit of the Shari’ah, and, therefore, the man who follows this course in divorce is an offender in the eye of Islamic Law.”

Instead of this, he must make the things clear and must have said: “The Talaq (Bida’a), which has been introduced by Umar, is against the spirit of Shari’ah, and, therefore, the man who follows this course in divorce is an offender in the eye of Islamic Law. “

And he must have said about the rewards of Umar for this innovation (i.e. according to hadith of Rasool Allah [saww]):

“…And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without their’s being diminished in any respect.”
Sahih Muslim, Book 034, Number 6466

Holding of Talaq without the witnesses

They must also take notice that Qur’an makes it Obligatory to take 2 persons as witness when one wants to give Talaq:

Thus when they fulfil their term appointed, either take them back on equitable terms or part with them on equitable terms; and take for witness two persons from among you, endued with justice, and establish the evidence (as) before Allah.
Al-Qur’an Surah 65, Ayah 2 (Translation by Yusuf Ali

Umar, by imposing the law of pronouncement of three divorces at same place and same time, also abandoned the rule of taking witnesses. (According to Shia Fiqh, divorce can only take place in the presence of two witnesses).

If you want to know about the evils of this innovation, then you must go to the courts and police stations of Pakistan (and certainly in the other Islamic countries too, but I am only witness in case of Pakistan). You will see strange types of cases in court. For example, women come in courts and claim that their respective husbands divorced them thrice in anger. But their respective husbands deny any kind of divorce.

From the prospect of women, they are telling the judges in courts, that they cannot stay any more with their men as they divorced them thrice in anger. And now they have come back to their senses and don’t want to give them freedom. And if they are compelled to go back to them, then it would constitute (as they have become Haram for them after getting divorce).
[Especially, in uneducated families of sub-continent, this evil is very common.]

What choice has been left for these innocent women?

If western world criticize this as humiliation for women, are they wrong and ONLY spreading false propaganda against Islam?

Note:
The Salafi Alim of Saudia published Qur’an, writes in the commentary of 1st verse of Sura Talaq, that Imam Ibne Qayyam and Imam Ibne Taymiyyah don’t accept the concept of Talaq Bid’a i.e. the way of divorce innovated by Umar.

Umar’s innovation in Khums (Depriving Ahlul Bayt from their share of Khums)

Allah (swt) has clearly stated in the Qur’an that one of the part of Khums belongs to the near relatives of Rasool Allah (saww).

And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer.
Al-Qur’an Surah 8, Ayah 41 (Translation by Yusuf Ali)

Thus Khums (literally one fifth of gain) should go to six people:

  1. Allah
  2. His Messenger
  3. The near relative of the Messenger (Ahlul-Bayt)
  4. Orphan
  5. needy
  6. the person who has fallen away from his home-town (and has no money to comeback to his own place).

It was Umar who innovated and changed the rules of Sharia by seizing the right of Ahle-Bayt. Let’s see what the defender of Umar, Maulana Shibli Numani has written in his “Al-Farooq” (page 351, part 2nd, published by Maktaba Rehmania, Lahore):

It is proved from the above verse [8:41] that relatives of Rasool Allah [saww] also have a share in the Khums. Ibne Abbas was of the same opinion. And although Hadhrat Ali didn’t give share to Banu Hashim(in the period of his khilafaat), but he was also have this opinion that Banu Hashim had right upon it (Kitabul-Khiraj by Qazi Abu Yousuf, page 11, on the authority of Muhammad bin Ishaq).

And these are not only the opinions of Ibne Abbas and Hadhrat Ali, but there was a consensus of Ahle-Bayt on this. Among the Aima Mujhtahideen (the 4 Sunni imams), Imam Shafii was also of this opinion, and he has written this in his books with great stress.

And it is said about Hadhrat Umar that he never agreed to fact that relatives of Prophet [saww] had also some share in the Khums. That is why he never gave any share to Ahlul-Bayt from the Khums. Among the Aima Mujhtahideen, Imam Abu Hanifa also didn’t agree to fact that there is a share of relatives of Rasool Allah [saww] from the Khums.

Abu Hanifa was of opinion that as the share of Rasool Allah [saww] had been ended up after the death of Rasool Allah [saww], in the same way the share of his relatives had also been ended.”

 

Shibli Numani’s defence of Umar and Abu Hanifa

Defence 1: Umar indeed offered the share of Khums to needy people from the Ahlul Bayt

On the page 353 of the same above-mentioned book, Shibli Numani writes:

“Qazi Abu Yousuf in his Kitabul Khiraj and Nisai in his Sahih have written the following tradition from Ibne Abbas:

Umar bin Khattab offered us that we may take some money from Khums only in order to do marriages of our widows and to pay the debt of debtors among us. But we (Ahlul-Bayt) do not accept anything except to give our whole share in our hands. But Umar didn’t accept it.”

Reply 1

It’s big deception by defenders of Umar that “Khums” was ONLY for the “Needy” people from Ahlul-Bait. Durinmg the life of Rasool Allah [saww], every one from relatives of Rasulullah (s) received their share of Khums. For example, Maulla Ali (as) got a horse from Khums in the times of Rasool Allah [saww].

Narrated Ali:

I got a she-camel in my share of the war booty on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and the Prophet had given me a she-camel from the Khums…
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 324

Who gave the authority to Umar to seize this right of Ahlul-Bayt?

Widows and debtors already come under the 4th category of Khums i.e. NEEDY. Who gave the right to Umar to delete the 3rd category, which was revealed by Allah (swt)? Whatever Umar did, it was contrary to Qur’an and Sunnah and constitutes a major innovation in the Sharia of Allah (swt).

2nd Defence: by advocating the Fatwa of Abu Hanifa that relatives of Rasool Allah saww lost their right of Share from Khums after Rasool Allah (saww)

On page 354 of the above mentioned book, Shibli Numani writes:

The relatives of Rasool Allah saww got the right of share from Khums while they helped Rasool Allah [saww] in the initial times of Islam at Makka. When Kuffar compelled Rasool Allah [saw]w, then whole Bani Hashim, in which those people were also included who didn’t accept Islam at that time, all of them helped Rasool Allah saww].

And also that time when Rasool Allah [saww] came out of Makka and took refuge in a cave, Bani Hashim was with Rasool Allah saww.Due to this Rasool Allah saww and Bani Hashim got share in Khums, and all this was for time being. But from this, if we take this result that there is a share for his relatives till day of judgement, without taking into consideration that how much his progeny progress in number, and how rich they may become, but still they get the money, then it is such a rule which is totally against the other rules of society.

Who can believe that one such Truthful founder of religion can make such a rule that his whole progeny get a fixed amount of money till Day of Judgment. And of some founder of religion does so, then what is the difference between him and the Hindu Brahmans?

Hadhrat Ali and Abdullah Ibne Abbas, who were asking for their right from Khums, they would have also not claimed that this right remains till Qiyammah, but only for those people (among Ahlul-Bayt) who had been left from the times of Rasool Allah (saww)

Reply 1: Did all those, who helped Islam in Makka, get their share from Khums?

Shibli Numani claims, Allah gave the share from Khums to Bani Hashim, while they helped Rasool Allah [saww] during the early period of Islam in Makka and when they sought refuge in the Shaib-abi- Talib. But it is only a Conjecture of Shibli Numani. They helped in Makka, but Sura Infal (which has verse of Khums) revealed in Madina after the battle of Badr.

Secondly, Sunni claim that there were Abu Bakr and others too who accepted Islam in the beginning. They also helped Islam in Makka. Did Abu Bakr get share from Khums? Some of them were even punished severely for accepting Islam, or even they had been killed (like the parents of Ammar Yasir). Did they also get share from Khums? Did Ammar Yasir get share for the Martyrdom of his parents?

So, we cannot accept the CONJECTURE of Shibli Numani. There are surely other reasons for Ahlul-Bayt having share in Khums. Don’t forget, Sadaqa is Haram on the progeny of Rasool Allah [saww].

Reply 2: Can a Truthful founder of Religion make a rule for a fixed amount of money for his progeny?

First question is, was it Rasool Allah [saww] who made granting a share of Khums to the Ahlul Bayt or was this ordained by Allah (swt)?

There are people who are indeed Jealous of the blessings that Allah bestowed upon Ahlul Bayt (starting from Bani Ummaiyyah and including many others). Such blessings were also bestowed upon the progeny of Ibraheem [a.s] and all the prophets in Bani Israel came from his [a.s] progeny.
Secondly, Sadaqa was made Haram on the Progeny of Rasool Allah [saww]

Narrated Abu Huraira:
Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali took a date from the dates of the Sadaqa and put it in his mouth. The Prophet said (to him) in Persian, “Kakh, kakh! (i.e. Don’t you know that we do not eat the Sadaqa (i.e. what is given in charity) (charity is the dirt of the people)).”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 306

Abu Huraira reported that Hasan b. ‘Ali took one of the dates of the sadaqa and put it in his mouth, whereupon the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Leave it, leave it, throw it; don’t you know that we do not eat the sadaqa?
Sahih Muslim Book 005, Number 2339

(Please see the whole chapters 46 & 47 of Book of Zakat in Sahih Muslim. There are many ahadith, which show that Sadaqa was Haram on Rasool Allah[saww] and his progeny and close relatives)

Defenders of Umar need to tell us, ‘who made Sadaqa Haram on the Rasool Allah [saww] and his progeny?’

  1. AllahOr
  2. Prophet Muhammad [saww] himself?

And can they also tell us why Sadaqa was made Haram on them? The only reason is, Ahle-Bait are chosen by Allah (saww) for this honour. And if defenders of Umar still claim that it was due to the reason that they helped Rasool (saww) initially in Makka, then they have to tell us why it was not made Haram upon Abu Bakr (who accepted Islam in Makka)?

And we ask defenders of Umar to refrain from adopting CONJECTURE, but cite proof from the Qur’an and Sunnah.

At this point, the absence of any proof from the Qur’an and Hadith, makes the Conjecture of Maulana Shibli Numani – FALSE.

Umar’s innovation of initiating the Tarawih Prayer

Before going further, let’s make some facts clear. People often confuse three different prayers. Namely:

1) Tahajjud (also called Salat al-Lail, Namaz e Shab): The time of this prayer is from mid-night till before dawn. But the best time is near before Dawn (i.e. before the time of morning prayer). TAHAJJUD is offered all arround the year.

2) Nafl (Non-Compulsory prayers): These are offered without congregation (Jama’at) Individually. The more time one spends in Nawafil, Non-Compulsory prayers, and recitation of Qur’an etc in Ramadhan nights the better. Such prayers can also be performed throughout the year.

3) Tarawih Offered in congregation (Jama’at) during Ramadhan. Usually starts after Isha prayers.

Tarawih is a bidah in the following sense

  1. Rasool Allah never offered any such (20 or 8 rakah) prayers after Isha prayer. What he offered (and people joined behind him for 3 nights) was night prayer (i.e. Tahajjud prayer which is offered after midnight). So, what is known as Tarawih nowadays (i.e. 20 or 8 rakat prayer after Isha prayer), had never been a Sunnah of Rasool Allah [saww].
  2. Tarawih is not in harmony with the principles of Islam. Rasool Allah [saww] gave clear
    orders that NON COMPULSORY CONGREGATIONAL PRAYERS should be offered individually in the homes. But contrary to the orders of Rasool Allah [saww] Umar collected the people in mosque, and started offering non-compulsory congregational prayer in congregation.

 

Prophet[saww] got angry with the people who insisted on him offering Tarawih prayers (in congregation)

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:
Allah’s Apostle made a small room (with a palm leaf mat). Allah’s Apostle came out (of his house) and prayed in it. Some men came and joined him in his prayer. Then again the next night they came for the prayer, but Allah’s Apostle delayed and did not come out to them. So they raised their voices and knocked the door with small stones (to draw his attention). He came out to them in a state of ANGER, saying, “You are still insisting (on your deed, i.e. Tarawih prayer in the mosque) that I thought that this prayer (Tarawih) might become obligatory on you. So you people, offer this prayer at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is the one which he offers at home, except the compulsory (congregational) prayer.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 73, Number 134

Prophet[SAWW] ordered his adherents to offer non-compulsory Prayers at home

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:
The Prophet took a room made of date palm leaves mats in the mosque. Allah’s Apostle prayed in it for a few nights till the people gathered (to pray the night prayer (Tarawih) (behind him.) Then on the 4th night the people did not hear his voice and they thought he had slept, so some of them started humming in order that he might come out. The Prophet then said, “You continued doing what I saw you doing till I was afraid that this (Tarawih prayer) might be enjoined on you, and if it were enjoined on you, you would not continue performing it. Therefore, O people! Perform your prayers at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is what is performed at his home except the compulsory congregational prayer.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 92, Number 393

The people would pray individually (not like in Tarawih) during Prophet[saww]‘s time

Narrated ‘Urwa:
That he was informed by ‘Aisha, “Allah’s Apostle went out in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque and some men prayed behind him. In the morning, the people spoke about it and then a large number of them gathered and prayed behind him (on the second night). In the next morning the people again talked about it and on the third night the mosque was full with a large number of people. Allah’s Apostle came out and the people prayed behind him. On the fourth night the Mosque was overwhelmed with people and could not accommodate them, but the Prophet came out (only) for the Morning Prayer. When the Morning Prayer was finished he recited Tashah-hud and (addressing the people) said, “Amma ba’du, your presence was not hidden from me but I was afraid lest the night prayer (Qiyam) should be enjoined on you and you might not be able to carry it on.” So, Allah’s Apostle died and the situation remained like that (i.e. people prayed individually). “

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 32, Number 229

Umar initiated Tarawih

Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, “Allah’s Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of ‘Umar’s Caliphate.” ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Abdul Qari said, “I went out in the company of ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, ‘Umar said, ‘in my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)’. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka’b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, ‘Umar remarked, ‘what an excellent Bid’a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.’ He meant the prayer in the last part of the night(Tahajjut). (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 32, Number 227

Are there any Ahadith in which Prophet [saww] encouraged Tarawih? No, there is not even a single hadith to this effect.

What did the Prophet[saww] say about his orders

Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Leave me as I leave you) for the people who were before you were ruined because of their questions and their differences over their prophets. So, if I forbid you to do something, then keep away from it. And if I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you can.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 92, Number 391

Is Tarawih in harmony with the principle of Islam?

Now, let us see if this new innovation by Umar was in harmony with the principle of religion or not.

Tahajjud prayer, that was offered by Rasool Allah [saww] (and people joined behind him for 3 nights), is only Fardh (compulsory) on Rasool Allah [saww]. Qur’an says:

And pray in the small watches of the morning: (it would be) an additional prayer (or spiritual profit) for thee: soon will thy Lord raise thee to a Station of Praise and Glory!
Al-Qur’an Surah 17, Ayah 79 (Translation by Yusuf Ali)

For the rest of Ummah, Tahajjud prayer is only Sunnat-e-Mu’akkidah, but not obligatory. And for all the Nawafil and Sunnat-e-Mu’akkidah, Rasool Allah [saww] has clearly said:

“Therefore, O people! Perform your prayers at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is what is performed at his home except the compulsory congregational prayer.”

Why did Umar gather people in the mosque for Jam’at (congregation) to carry out NON COMPULSORY and NON CONGREGATIONAL Prayer? Is it not a clear violation of the orders of Rasool Allah [saww]? Anything that is not in harmony with the principles of religion, constitutes innovation of Dhalalah (misguidance).

The Fatwas of 4 Imams about Jama’at for Tarawih

Hanafi fiq’h:
According to Hanafi Fiq’h, it is Sunnat-e-Kafaya i.e. if some people offer it by Jama’at then the Jama’at does not remain compulsory for all.

Shafai and Hambali Fiq’h:
They declare the Jama’at an obligatory Sunnah for all.

Maliki Fiq’h:
They consider the Jama’at as Mustahab i.e. better but not an obligatory Sunnah.
My humble opinion is this that these 4 Fuqaha are deeming an act “Sunnat-e-Kafaya”, “Obligatory” and “Mustahab”, that was not even a Sunnah of Rasool Allah [saww] (i.e. to offer any kind of 8 or 20 rakah prayers after Isha prayer, and that in Mosques, and that in Congregation).

Shia fiq’h:
According to our Mujtahideen, Tahhajut is Sunet-e-Mu’aakida and can only be prayed after midnight (not after Isha prayer). And as Rasool Allah [saww] said about Tahajut prayer, it is better to pray it at Home while it is Non Compulsory Non Congregational prayer.

May Allah show all of us the right path. Amin.

A Preview of Innovation in Tarawih by Shafi’i and Hanbali Fiqh

Both of these 2 Fiqhs consider Tarawih as an “Obligatory Sunnah” (i.e. it is sin to leave it without any reason).

But declaring it, actually these 2 Fiqhs have degraded the “Tahajjud Salah”, which is much better than Tarawih and by consensus “Tahajjud” is “Recommended Sunnah” (i.e. no sin even if left without any reason).

Here is the testimony of Umar that “Tahajjud” is better worship than “Tarawih” (and he bore this testimony when he was introducing the “Tarawih Prayer”.

Narrated Abu Huraira:
�So, ‘Umar said, ‘in my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)’. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka’b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, ‘Umar remarked, ‘what an excellent Bid’a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.’ He meant the prayer in the last part of the night(Tahajjut). (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 32, Number 227

There are people, who rush to the mosques to carry out Umar’s Innovation of Tarawih, but these same people don’t give preference to Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww) of Tahajjud and remain asleep at that time.

Salafi Sunnah of Completing Whole Qur’an during “Tarawih”

Another very important question for my Salafi friends, which they never answer. “Please show us that Rasool Allah (saww) also completed “Whole Qur’an” during Ramadhan, in Tarawih Prayers and in congregational form (like the way Salfies do now-a-days)?”

Need I to comment anymore? [At least with my limited knowledge and little experience, I am yet to find a Salafi answer to this question.]

Umar was the first Caliph who innovated via usage of the title Ameer-ul-Momineen for himself.

After the death of Rasool Allah (saww), Abu Bakr during whole of his caliphate, known as “Khalifah of Rasool Allah (saww)”. But when Umar became Caliph, he innovated by awarding himself the title of “Ameer-ul-Momineen for him.

“Some people came from Iraq and asked Umro bin Al-Aas to give their message to “Ameer-ul-Momineen”. Umro bin Al-Aas gave the message in the same words. Hadhrat Umar liked the title of “Ameer-ul-Momineen. From that day, this title became famous.

Sunni References:

  1. Al-Farooq, page 305, published by Maktaba Rehmania, Lahore, Pakistan.
  2. Muqadma of Ibne Khaldoon, chapter of “Title of Ameer-ul-Momineen”.
  3. Kitab-ul-Adab by Imam Bukhari, published by Aarah, page 184.

But for others, Umar also innovated by introducing criminal penalties on one that gained the respect of people.

Allama Shibli Numani writes in his book “Al-Farooq” page 327 (as an admirer for Umar):

Mu’awiya did not want to rule, nor refused the leadership of Ali bin Abi “Ubai Ibne Kaab was a very righteous Sahabi. Some people went to see him. When he stood up, the other people also stood up as his respect. Accidentally, Umar also came there and saw all this. He lashed Ubai. Upon that (Ubai became surprised and asked) why he was lashed? Umar replied, “Don’t you know that this action is fitna for a person who is respected, and disgrace for those, who show respect.”

Can Salafies show us that Rasool Allah (saww) ever lashed any person due to reason that people stood up in his respect? If not then who gave this right to Umar to declare it a “Crime” under Islamic Shar’ia and inflict punishment on Muslims for this?

Umar was even against Respecting the Signs of Allah (swt)

Allah ordered us in Qur’an to respect His Signs [Qur'an, 22:32]. But Umar was very against it and innovated a lot of things, in order to stop the other Sahaba Karam to pay respect to Signs of Allah (swt).

The Salafies always admire and pay tribute to Umar for these innovations (which he did to allegedly counter Shirk). For example, Shibli Numani paid tribute to Umar in his book Al-Farooq in the following words (Al-Farooq, page 324, Maktaba Rehmania Pakistan):

 

“It is the principle of Islam to respect the Signs of Allah (swt). That’s why we respect Holy Ka’aba and Black Stone (Hajar-e-Aswad). But it is very much similar to idol worship in other religions. So, Hadhrat Umar wanted Muslim Ummah to keep away from doing such thing. He said to Hajar-e-Aswad:

  1. “I know you are only a stone, which can neither harm us nor benefit us. I kiss you only while I saw Rasool Allah (s) kissing you”. [Muslim: 7: 2916]
  2. And the tree, under which Sahaba took Bait-e-Ridhwan, people stated thinking it to be a blessed tree. When Umar saw it, he ordered it to be cut down. [Izalatul Khafa, Part 2, page 91, Ibne Saad in Tabaqaat]
  3. And once Umar was coming back from Hajj. In the way, there was a Mosque where Rasool Allah (s) prayed. People started running towards the mosque. When Hadhrat Umar saw it, he addressed the people and said, ” Ahle-Kitab went astray due to this same reason while they made the monuments of their prophets as places of worship. [Izalatul Khafa, Part 2, page 91]

Due to above Innovations of Umar, he is a favourite personality of Salafies. And they are quoting these incidents in their texts of Tauheed.

But let’s see the truth behind Umar’s Innovations.

Reply 1: Maulla Ali (as) differed to Umar on Hajar-e-Aswad:

Salafi quote only distorted version of the narration. Complete narration is as under.

Umar while visiting the Kaba, said before the Hajar al-aswad, “You cannot do anything! But I kiss you in order to follow Rasulullah (‘alaihi ‘s-salam).” ‘Ali (as) said upon hearing this, “Rasulullah (saww) said, ‘On the Day of Judgment, the Hajar al-aswad will intercede for people.’ ” [This hadith is reported by at-Thirmidhi, an-Nasai, al-Baihaki, at-Tabarani and al-Bukhari in his History.] And ‘Umar thanked ‘Ali (as).
Source:
 Religion reformers in Islam
Also see “Al-Farooq” by Shibli Numani, page 323, published by Maktaba Rehmania, Pakistan.)

Reply 2: Barakah in tree, under which Sahaba took bayyah of Ridhwan

Indeed there was a great Barakah in that tree. And Allah knows better than Umar what should be made Halal or what should be made Haram on Muslim Ummah.

In Islamic Sharia, ONLY prostration of Respect has been made Haram (which was considered as highly virtuous act in earlier nations as Yaqoob (as) prostrated Yousuf (as)). But Umar went step forward than Allah (swt), and he made many more things Haram in name of “Fear of Shirk”.

Even Ibne Umar (son of Umar Ibn Khattab) was against this innovation of his father. Ibn `Umar derived blessings even from walking in the same spot where the Prophet had walked and would pray exactly where he (s) had prayed both at the Ka`ba and on his travels, and that he watered a certain tree under which Prophet had prayed so that it would not die. [Bayhaqi Sunan 5:245]
Source:
 Encyclopaedia of Islamic Doctrine

Reply 3: Those places become blessed, from where Rasool Allah (saww) passed

Again, Allah knows better than Umar why Ahle-Kitab were destroyed. And He made ONLY prostration of respect Haram in Islamic Sharia. But Umar innovated in Sharia and made many Halal things Haram.

Indeed there is a Barakah and Benefit in the relics of Prophets and seeking this Barakah is not Shirk or going astray. Just look at the action of Umar in light of Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww).

Narrated Mahmuid bin Rabi’ Al-Ansari:
‘Itban bin Malik used to lead his people (tribe) in prayer and was a blind man, he said to Allah’s Apostle , “O Allah’s Apostle! At times it is dark and flood water is flowing (in the valley) and I am blind man, so please pray at a place in my house so that I can take it as a Musalla (praying place).” So Allah’s Apostle went to his house and said, “Where do you like me to pray?” ‘Itban pointed to a place in his house and Allah’s Apostle, offered the prayer there.

1. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 11, Number 636
2. Sahih Muslim Book 001, Number 0053
3. Malik’s Muwatta book 9, Number 9.24.89

And also the Sahaba used to get benefit of Barakah by the house in which Rasool Allah [saww] entered.

Narrated Abu Burda:
When I came to Medina. I met Abdullah bin Salam. He said, “Will you come to me so that I may serve you with Sawiq (i.e. powdered barley) and dates, and let you enter a (blessed) house in which the Prophet entered?

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, Number 159

Rasool Allah (saww) ordered Sahaba to drink water from the place, from where the she-camel of Salih (as) had drunk.

Abdullah b. ‘Umar reported that the people encamped along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) in the valley of Hijr, the habitations of Thamud, and they quenched their thirst from the wells thereof and kneaded the flour with it. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded that the water collected for drinking should be spilt and the flour should be given to the camels and commanded them that the water for drinking should be taken from that well where the she-camel (of Hadrat Salih) used to come.
Sahih Muslim, Book 042, Number 7105

Need we comment any more on Umar’s Innovations or Salafi Doctrine of respecting the signs of Allah (who follow Umar’s innovations rather than adhere to the Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww))?

Umar’s Innovation of forbidding the writing of Hadith

During Rasool Allah’s time, people use to tell each other the verses of Qur’an and as well as narrate the Ahadith of Rasool Allah (saww).

Umar was first who claimed (in the last days of Rasool Allah [saww]) that “ONLY Book of Allah is enough” and there is no need of taking guidance from Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww).

When Abu Bakr became 1st Caliph, he discouraged the narrating of Hadith of Rasool Allah (saww). Then Umar became the 2nd Caliph. He continued this innovation (i.e. forbidding the writing of hadith). And afterwards Uthman also continued this same practice.

[Please note that although, Abu Bakr and Umar discouraged the narrating of Hadih-e-Nabi, but still they were unable to get rid of Hadith totally. Abu Bakr came with alleged Hadith against Fatima Zahra (Salam Allah Alaiha) that Prophets don't leave any inheritance for their children, but it is charity.

Umar also had to search for Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww) when he was faced with problems and he didn't know what to do.]

We are not going to in-depth study of this matter here. If anyone wants to know more, he can read the Chapter 5 of book “Ask those Who Know” by Tijani Samawi. Let us discuss here ONLY that Actions of Umar, which are related to our topic of Bidah. Shibli Numani offered some Defences of Umar in Al-Farooq (page 330-335).

Defence 1: Umar didn’t totally forbid the narrating of hadith, but put a condition of 2 witnesses for it

Reply:

Off course Umar discouraged and forbade the narrating of Hadith to a great extent and Sahaba feared of narrating it when he was Caliph. And as well as writing of hadith is concerned, he totally forbade it.

Moreover, can Salafies show us if Rasool Allah (saww) ever put the condition of 2 witnesses in narrating hadith? Why do you exhonnerate Umar for introducing this new “Condition” into “Islamic Sharia”.

Not only did Umar introduce the “Innovation” of these 2 witnesses, he also innovated in Islamic Sharia by inflicting a severe punishment for it (which Rasool Allah (saww) never authorised). Let’s see the following tradition.

Abd Sa’id Khudri reported:

We were in the company of Ubayy b. Ka’b that Abu Musa Ash’ari came there in a state of anger. He stood (before us) and said: I ask you to bear witness in the name of Allah whether anyone amongst you heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Permission (for entering the house) should be sought three times and if permission is granted to you (then get in). otherwise go back. Ubayy b. Ka’b said: What is the matter? He said: I sought permission yesterday from ‘Umar b. Khattab three times but he did not permit me, so I came back; then I went to him today and visited him and informed him that I had come to him yesterday and greeted him thrice, then came back, whereupon he said: Yes, we did hear you but be were at that time busy, but why did you not seek permission (further and you must have never gone back until you were permitted to do so). He said: I sought permission (in the manner) that I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said (in connection ‘With the seeking of permission for entering the house of a stranger). Thereupon he (Hadrat Umar) said: By Allah, I shall torture your back and your stomach unless you bring one who may bear witness to what you state. ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b said: By Allah, none should stand with you (to bear testimony) but the youngest amongst us. And he therefore, said to Abu Sa’id: Stand up. So I stood up until I came to Umar and said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) say this.
Sahih Muslim, Book 025, Number 5356

  • Can our Salafi friends show us the existence of this punishment in Islamic Sharia, which was enforced by Rasool Allah (saww)?
  • Even Umar was unable to follow his own standard of 2 witnesses. Imam Shafi criticized Umar for this that he himself accepted 1 witness in many cases. For example, in important case of magicians, he accepted the Only witness of Abdul Rehman Ibne Auf. (Please see the next innovation by Umar i.e. Killing of the magicians).
    But in non-important case of entering the house, he asked for 2nd witness and threatened Sahabi Abu Musa Ashari of severe punishment. And in case of Tayyammum, again he didn’t accept the Single witness of Ammar Yasir (r).

Umar innovation in Killing the Magicians

Before we go to main topic of killing the magicians, let us show you that according to Uthman, Rasool Allah (saww) ordered that a person can be killed only in 3 cases, a) Murtad, b) fornication after marriage and c) for killing other person.

Salafies always try to prove that killing of Uthman was a Shahadat by using the following alleged hadith by Uthman (i.e. killing is only allowed in 3 cases):

Narrated Uthman ibn Affan:

AbuUmamah ibn Sahl said: We were with Uthman when he was besieged in the house. There was an entrance to the house. He who entered it heard the Speech of those who were in the Bilat. Uthman then entered it. He came out to us, looking pale.

He said: They are threatening to kill me now. We said: Allah will be sufficient for you against them, Commander of the Faithful! He asked: Why kill me? I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) say: It is not lawful to kill a man who is a Muslim except for one of the three reasons: Kufr (disbelief) after accepting Islam, fornication after marriage, or wrongfully killing someone, for which he may be killed.
Sunnan Abu Dawud, Book 39, Number 4487

So, killing is only allowed in 3 cases. But Strange, Umar never paid attention to these “Words” of Rasool Allah (saww) and innovated by ordering the killing of innocent Magicians (one year before his death).

Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:

Amr ibn Aws and AbulSha’tha’ reported that Bujalah said: I was secretary to Jaz’ ibn Mu’awiyah, the uncle of Ahnaf ibn Qays.

A letter came to us from Umar one year before his death, saying: Kill every magician, separate the relatives of prohibited degrees from the Magians, and forbid them to murmur (before eating). So we killed three magicians in one day, and separated from a Magician husband his wife of a prohibited degree according to the Book of Allah.

He prepared abundant food and called them, and placed the sword on his thigh. They ate (the food) but did not murmur. They threw (on the ground) one or two mule-loads of silver. Umar did not take jizyah from Magians until AbdurRahman ibn Awf witnessed that the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) had taken jizyah from the Magians of Hajar.
Sunna Abu Dawud, Book 19, Number 3037

Moreover, in this important case Umar accepted the Ahad (singular) witness of Abdur Rahman ibn Awf. But why he threaten to punish Abu Musa Ashari and why didn’t he accept his Ahad witness in the less important case of entering the home?

Umar’s Innovation in the Law of Mehr (Dowry)

One day Caliph Umar during the course of his sermon to the people, said: “If any one marries and fixes a mehr (dowry) for more than 400 dirhams for his wife, I will inflict the prescribed punishment on him and will deposit the excess amount in the Baitu’l-Mal (Public Treasury).”

A woman from the audience called out: “Umar! Is what you say more acceptable or Allah’s ordinance? Does not Allah Almighty say: ‘And if you wish to have (one) wife in place of another and you have given one of them a heap of gold, then take not from it anything.’” (4:20)

Having heard this verse and the retort of the woman, Umar said: “You have better knowledge of fiqh and problems than Umar, all of you, including even the women observing purdah sitting in their homes.”
Then Umar again mounted the pulpit and said: “Although I have forbidden you to give more than 400 dirhams as dowry to your wives, I now permit you to give as much as you like beyond the appointed limit. There is no harm in it.”
Sunni Reference:

  • Jalalu’d-din Suyuti in his Tafsir-e-Durru’l-Mansur, vol. II, p.133;
  • Ibn Kathir in his Commentary, Vol. I, p.468;
  • Jarullah Zamakhshari in his Tafsir-e-Kashshaf, vol.I, p.357;
  • Ibn Maja’ Qazwini in his Sunan, vol.I;
  • Baihaqi in his Sunan, vol.VII, p.233;
  • Qastalani in his Irshadu’s-Sari-Sharh-e-Sahih Bukhari, vol.VIII, p.57;
  • Muttaqi Hindi in his Kanzu’l-’Ummal, vol.VIII, p. 298;
  • Hakim Nishapuri in his Mustadrak, vol.II, p.177; �� and many more.

Can Salafies answer us the following questions:

  • (Assuming there was no law about dowry in Qur’an) Who gave this right to Umar to introduce a new Punishment law in Islamic Sharia?
  • Why don’t you judge Umar’s action according to your definition of Bidah?

Umar’s innovation in the Adhan of Fajr

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the muadhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, “Prayer is better than sleep,” and Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for subh.
Mawatta of Malik, Book 3, Number 3.1.8

Why Salafies keep quite on this innovation of Umar? Why don’t they call him innovator and misguided one? Why do the Salafi like the Ahl’ul Sunnah practice this innovation evet Fajr? For the Salafi’s this in effect means that their Salaf have been practising this Bidah every single day since the edict of Umar? How many Salaf have become fuel for Hell Fire (and shall continue to do so) having practised this innovation? Do the Salafi Ulema have no shame, allowing generation of their innocent adherents to be misguided on a daily basis by reciting this bidah Adhan?

Double Standards!

Umar’s pointing his finger towards Kaba during Salat

He [Omar] was saying prayers once when at the verse ‘ Then Serve the Lord of this House ‘ he pointed his finger to the Ka’ba. Shah Waliullah remarks that a gesture of this kind is permitted in prayers.
Sunni References:
1)’Al Farooq ‘ Life of Umar the great-Second caliph of Islam, Volume II of II, page 314 Shibli Numani, Publishers Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Lahore, Pakistan

2) Izalatul Khifa, Volume III of IV, page 346 (Shah Wali Ullah Muhaddith Dehlavi with reference to Ibne Abi Shaiyba), Publishers Qadeemi Kitab Khana, Karachi Pakistan).

Umar’s innovation in the Hukm of Tayyammum

Qur’an says not to make anything forbidden if you don’t know about them:

But say not – for any false thing that your tongues may put forth,- “This is lawful, and this is forbidden,” so as to ascribe false things to Allah. For those who ascribe false things to Allah, will never prosper.
Al-Qur’an Surah 16, Ayah 16 (Translation by Yusuf Ali)

And Qur’an says about Tayyammum:

O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
Al-Qur’an Surah 5, Ayah 5 (Translation by Yusuf Ali)

It is well known from the Prophetic Sunnah that the Prophet of Allah [saww] taught the companions how to make tayammum, even in the presence of ‘Umar himself.

Narrated ‘Imran:
Once we were travelling with the Prophet and we carried on travelling till the last part of the night and then we (halted at a place) and slept (deeply). There is nothing sweeter than sleep for a traveller in the last part of the night. So it was only the heat of the sun that made us to wake up and the first to wake up was so and so, then so and so and then so and so (the narrator ‘Auf said that Abu Raja’ had told him their names but he had forgotten them) and the fourth person to wake up was ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. And whenever the Prophet used to sleep, nobody would wake up him till he himself used to get up as we did not know what was happening (being revealed) to him in his sleep. So, ‘Umar got up and saw the condition of the people, and he was a strict man, so he said, “Allahu Akbar” and raised his voice with Takbir, and kept on saying loudly till the Prophet got up because of it. When he got up, the people informed him about what had happened to them. He said, “There is no harm (or it will not be harmful). Depart!” So they departed from that place, and after covering some distance the Prophet stopped and asked for some water to perform the ablution. So he performed the ablution and the call for the prayer was pronounced and he led the people in prayer. After he finished from the prayer, he saw a man sitting aloof who had not prayed with the people. He asked, “O so and so! What has prevented you from praying with us?” He replied, “I am Junub and there is no water. ” The Prophet said, “Perform Tayammum with (clean) earth and that is sufficient for you.”

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 7, Number 340

Abd al-Rabmin b. Abza narrated it on the authority of his father that a man came to ‘Umar and said: I am (at times) affected by seminal emission but find no water. He (‘Umar) told him not to say prayer. ‘Ammar then said. Do you remember,0 Commander of the Faithful, when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not find water (for taking bath) and you did not say prayer, but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer, and (when it was mentioned before) the Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow (the dust) and then wipe your face and palms. Umar said: ‘Ammar, fear Allah. He said: If you so like, I would not narrate it.
Sahih Muslim Book 003, Number 0718

Shaqiq reported:
I was sitting in the company of Abdullah and Abu Musa when Abu Musa said: 0 ‘Abd al-Rahman (kunya of ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud), what would you like a man to do about the prayer if he experiences a seminal emission or has sexual intercourse but does not find water for a month? ‘Abdullah said: He should not perform tayammum even if he does not find water for a month. ‘Abdullah said: Then what about the verse in Sura Ma’ida:” If you do not find water, betake yourself to clean dust”? ‘Abdullah said: If they were granted concession on the basis of this verse, there is a possibility that they would perform tayammum with dust on finding water very cold for themselves. Abu Musa said to Abdullah: You have not heard the words of ‘Ammar: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent me on an errand and I had a seminal emission, but could find no water, and rolled myself in dust just as a beast rolls itself. I came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) then and made a mention of that to him and he (the Holy Prophet) said: It would have been enough for you to do thus. Then he struck the ground with his hands once and wiped his right hand with the help of his left hand and the exterior of his palms and his face. ‘Abdullah said: Didn’t you see that Umar was not fully satisfied with the words of ‘Ammar only?

Sahih Muslim, Book 003, Number 0716

Need we to say anymore on the Scholarship and Innovations of Umar?

There are many more Bidahs of Umar e.g:

Mutta of Nisa’a: It’s a very detailed topic and the AA team is planning to have a separate article on this topic.

Share from Bait-ul-Mal: Rasool Allah (saww) used to give equal share to every one from the Bait-ul-Mal. This practice was continued by Abu Bakr. But Umar started distributing it on non-equal basis. When Maulla Ali (as) became caliph, he again started distributing it according to the Sunnah of Rasool Allah (saww).

Umar was the first who introduced Qiyyas (Al-Farooq, page 348): During his reign, Abu Bakr, would base rulings by relying on the Qur’an and hadith. If he didn’t find an answer from these sources, he would gather the learned Sahaba and the decision would be made collectively (i.e. Ijma). (Masnad Darimi, page 32).

Followers of Umar praising him for his Innovations

At the end, let us see how followers of Umar praise him for his Innovations in name of his Ijtehaad. Dr. Khursheed Ahmad from Delhi University wrote a book on Umar, in which he collected the “Official Letters” of Umar to his governors. In this book he writes:

“…The Ijtehaad of Hadhrat Umar was free and courageous. If he thought something to be correct or in the favour of Khilafaah, he acted upon it without any hesitation even if by doing so he had to go against the Sunnah of Rasool (saww) or Sunnah of Abu Bakr Siddique. And if the situation was not favourable, then even he would even neglect the commands and rules of Qur’an. For example the Qur’an stipulates that conquered lands be given to the Mujahideen (soldiers) who fought. But Hadhrat Umar made it a Waqf (Trust) for all the Muslims. And Hadhrat Umar took “Double Zakaat” from the Christians of Mesopotamia, while Qur’an says that “Zakaat” is only obligatory upon Muslims…”
 ”Hadhrat Umar kay Sarkari Khatoot” (The official letters by Hadhrat Umar), page 25, published by Idarah Islamiat, Lahore Pakistan)

 

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