Chapter Nine: The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part V)
: The Imams possession of the belongings of past Prophets
: Imam Ali (as) being the distributor of Heaven and Hell
: Maulana Manzoor Naumani’s hilarious conclusion as to why Sunni texts are absent with information about Imamate?
: Is the Shi’a belief in Imamate and the powers associated with it tantamount to accepting the continuation of Prophethood?
: The Imams possession of the belongings of past Prophets
In Usul-e-Kafi a Chapter is entitled: “Description of the miracles of the Prophets of the past which the Imams possessed”.The substance of the first saying, in this chapter, of Imam Baqar is that the staff of Moses which was his main miracle really belonged to Adam which went on being passed from one owner to another till it reached Moses and it was now with Imam Baqar and will reach the Awaited Imam in due course. It will have the same power as it had at the time of Moses. (p. 141).The narration goes on to say that one night Hazrat Ali came out after Isha Prayers and declared – “The Imam of the day has come out before you. He is putting on the shirt of Adam and the ring of Solomon and is holding the staff of Moses”. (p. 142).
Reply One – Maula Ali (as) inherited the belongings of past Prophets (s) to fulfil their covenant of Nusrat (help) to Rasulullah (s)
We read Surah Aal-e-Imran verses 81-82:
Behold! Allah took the covenant of the prophets, saying: “I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you an apostle, confirming what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help.” Allah said: “Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?” They said: “We agree.” He said: “Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses.”
If any turn back after this, they are perverted transgressors.
In this Verse Allah takes a vow from all the previous prophets that they promise to:
(1). Believe in the Final Prophet Muhammad(s)
(2). Provide aid (nusrat) to the final Prophet
The Prophet hoods of all other Prophets (peace be upon all of them) is dependant upon fulfilling this vow, because Allah makes it clear in this verse to all His Prophets that if they break this promise to aid the Seal of the Prophets Muhammad(s) they will become transgressors! Now, both Sunni and Shi’a affirm that the first condition was fulfilled by all prophets by their acknowledging the coming of the Seal of All Prophets, our prophet Muhammad(s).
Whilst one can be evidenced, what of the second condition? Providing aid (nusrat) to Muhammad(s) is a vow taken by all the prophets, and consequently failure to provide this nusrat to the Prophet Muhummad (s) would make them all transgressors. There is no doubting that our translation of nusrat is correct, its root word is nusra and Wehr in the Arabic-English Dictionary, by Hans Wehr page 970, 3rd edition, defines it as “help, aid, assistance, support, backing”
The question is how did these Prophets provide this nusrat when they were not physically present? Nasibi state that the dead cannot benefit the living yet in this verse the Prophets are told clearly that if they fail to provide assistance (nusrat) to Hadhrat Muhammad (s) they will become Fasiq. The verse states clearly that all other prophets took an oath to which they and Allah were witnesses they had to follow this Covenant, so we are left with the perplexing thought of how they fulfilled the second part of this Covenant to provide the Last Prophet (s) with nusrat when they would not be there for him for they had been dead long before the birth of Muhammad(s)? The only answer can be that, as Muslims, we must answer that Allah (swt)’s prophets did fulfil this part of the Covenant too. We have to believe that they had provided nusrat, the question is how? The answer is they had fulfilled this duty via the provision of their Prophetic belongings to prove to the Kuffar the Rasulullah (swt) was a true Prophet (s) as he possessed Prophetic belongings and the associated miracles that transferred through the hands of Prophets and their appointed Wasi’s, as such the possessions of these belongings acted as a source of evidence to a hostile audience that Rasulullah (s) was a Prophet (s) sent by Allah (swt) as a Mercy for Mankind. The verse states that the Prophets had to provide nusrat, clearly the transference of belongings was not sufficient to constitute help, these belongings needed to provided a practical source of assistance, such as their associated miracles, and there had to be a means via which they could fulfil this obligation of Nusrat, this was achieved via that individual that Allah (swt) deemed the Nusrat of the Prophet (s). We read in Surah Anfal verse 62:
Should they intend to deceive thee, Verily God sufficeth thee. He it is that hath strengthened thee, with His aid (Nusrat) and with the company of the believers”
Suyuti in his commentary of this verse narrated from Abu Hurraira that he heard the Prophet (s) say that the Aid (Nusrat) in this Verse is Ali, for he heard:
The Messenger (s) say, that there is an inscription in the seventh sky of heaven:”There is no God but I alone, There is not any equal or partner to me, Muhammad is my servant and my Messenger,Whom I supported by means of Ali”
Tafsir Durr al Manthur, by al Hafiz Jalaladeen Suyuti, P 199
When Maula Ali (as) has been declared by Allah (swt) as the Nusrat of the Prophet (swt) then it is logical that the duty of past Prophets to fulfil their Nusrat of Rasulullah (s) was also achieved through Maula Ali (as), and this was done in a two fold manner.
One: Through the inheritance of virtues of past Prophets – The fact that Imam Ali (as) was fulfilling the covenant of previous Prophet’s also explains, why he inherited virtues, which previous Prophet’s possessed, for the Messenger of Allah (s) said:
“He who wants to see Adam (as) in his knowledge, Noah (as) in his determination, in his clemency, Moses (as) in his intelligence and Jesus (as) in his religious devotion should look at Ali Ibn Abi Talib (as)”
Riyadh al Nadira Volume 2 page 239, Dhikr Ali ibn Abi Talib
It was through these virtues and countless others, that Ali (as) acted as the aid of the Holy Prophet (s). The previous prophets had a Covenant to provide aid (nusrat) to the Holy Prophet, and that nusrat came in the guise of Imam Ali (as), who was acting on their behalf, Maula Ali (as) inheritance of the characterises / virtues of past Prophets ensured that he could utilize these strengths in his capacity as nusrat of the Prophet (s).
Two: Maula Ali (as) inheriting Prophets belongings and the miracles associated with them. This was a means via which the true Wasi could show that he was the true Wasi of the Seal of all Prophets (s). It needs to recognised that the duty of Prophets was to provide assistance to the Prophet (s), the Prophethood of Muhammad (s) did not end with his death, rather it will continue until the Day of Judgement, evidenced by the kalmia There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Messenger. In the same way that this Kalima is applicable until the day of Judgement, the Prophetic duty to provide assistance is also applicable.
As such the duty to provide nusrat to the Prophet (s), incumbent on past Prophets is incumbent on them until the end of the world and this nusrat had been provided through the 12 Imams, in their capacity as the true wasi’s of the Prophet (s).
Reply Two – The Imams possessed these items as the true inheritors of the Prophet (s)
These items transferred as inheritance through the generations, ultimately they went to the Prophet (s) and then to the Imams who inherited his knowledge and possessions. We read in Surah Baqarah 002.248:
And (further) their Prophet said to them: “A Sign of His authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if ye indeed have faith.”
Al-Qur’an, Surah 2, Ayah 248, translated by Yusufali
These relics reached the hands of Hadhrat Adam (as) and his descendants and as proof we shall rely on the following esteemed Sunni works:
- Tafseer Kabeer Volume 2 page 506 & 507
- Tafseer Khazan Volume 1 page 216
- Tafseer Qurtubi, Volume 1 page 247
- Tafseer Ibn Katheer Volume 1 page 301
- Tafseer al-Thalabi, Volume 2 page 212
“The historians narrate that Allah (swt) sent some relics to Adam (as) which contained pictures of the Prophets, and these relics were inherited by the children of Adam, to the point that they reached Hadhrat Yaqoob (as)”
Tafseer al-Kabeer, Vol. 2, Page 506 & 507
Qurtubi, in his commentary of this verse states:
This Covenant was sent by Allah (SWT) to Prophet Adam (A.S), and it remained with him until it reached Prophet Yaqoob (as), after which it remained with Bani-Israel, and they kept overcoming their opposing armies due to the blessings of this chest, until they disobeyed Allah (swt), and were defeated by Amaliqans, who took the chest from them.
Tafseer Ibn Katheer
“In this chest were the sticks of Musa and Haroon, the tablets of the Torah, as well as the handwritten scriptures of Musa and Haroon”.
If we believe that the Imams possessed the possessions of past Prophets it is because they were the true inheritors of the mission of the Prophet (s) and hence inherited all that previous Prophets brought, thus incorporating their teachings and possessions. The possessions of these affirmed the Prophet Muhammad (s), since these possessions were continually transferred to the legitimate heirs of each Prophet, hence their possession of these artefacts confirmed their status as true heirs of the true Prophet Muhammad (s). The ability to perform these miracles via utilising Prophetic belongings would act as a source of convincing non Muslims of their status and would in turn affirm the Prophethood of Muhammad (s), after all they were his representatives. Ibn Hajr al Makki al-Haythami writing on Imam Mahdi (as) states:
“Imam Mahdi shall bring those things that had been removed from Bayt al Muqaddas, including the coffin of Sakeena, the commandments for Bani Israeel, the divinely inspired writings of Musa, the clothes of Adam, the stick of Musa, the pulpit of Sulayman and two heavenly dishes that Allah (swt) sent to the Israelites, that will be whiter than milk.”
Al Qol al Mukhthasar fee alamat al Mahdi al muntadhar page 42 [published in Riyadh]
If Imam Mahdi (as) can possess the belongings of past Prophets, what is the objection if we believe that these same items were also in the possession of the previous Imams from the same lineage?
As for this Nasibi’s objection that the Imams possessed the miracles from these belongings then it is because this affirms their position as the true Ul’il Amr of the Prophet (s). If these items came in the hand of already people then they would have no power that will only be triggered by the true Ul’il Amr. By way of example, if I take a pen and have absolute control over it, it is of no use if I am unable to write. The true Ul’il Amr are those that that have control of the Amr that Allah (swt) has provided and can (via the will of Allah (swt)) operate those Prophetic belongings that contained miracles, such as the stick of Musa (as). If Imam ‘Ali (as) and the other Imams could do this it was because they are the Imams appointed by Allah (swt) and his Prophet (s) to guide the Ummah, as such they were endowed with the powers that other Prophets were given.
Let us provide an example; Qadi Iyad in ‘al Shifa’ Volume 1 page 157-158 narrates this miracle of the Prophet:
“Al Tahawi related in an obscure hadith from Asma bint ‘Umaysh that the Prophet received a revelation while in ‘Ali’s tent, and he did not pray Asr until after the sun had set. The Messenger said ‘Did you pray ‘Ali?’ He replied ‘No’. The Messenger of Allah said, ‘O Allah it is in your obedience and the obedience of Your Messenger, return the sun to him’. Asma said ‘I had seen it set and then I saw it rise after it had set and stopped between the mountain and the earth’. That was at Sabha in Khaybar”.
al Shifa by Qadi Iyad, Volume 1 page 157-158
Saim Chisthi al Hanafi in ‘Mushkil kusha’ Volume 1 page 226 narrates the same event from numerous Sunni sources and then he records that Imam ‘Ali (as) performed the same miracle.
‘Ali was going towards and intended on offereing his Salat at the foot of the mountain of Rafaq. His companions passed by the mountain, and the suns set and the Salat became Qadha. His associates began to weep, and Ali supplicated for the sun to return, as he and his associates wanted made an intention to offer Salat on time. Allah (swt) accepted his prayer and the sun returned. When he prayed and completed his final Salaam, the sun set again…” [Shawahid un Nunbuwwa page 292]
Mushkil Kusha, page 226 by Saaim Chishti (Chishti Kutub Khana, Faisalabad, Paskitan)
Now here we see the ability of Rasulullah (s) and his wasi Maula Ali (as) to alter the movement of the sun. This is interesting since we read in Surah Luqman verse 29 that the movement of the sun and moon are through the Amr (authority of Allah (swt)):
Seest thou not that Allah merges Night into Day and He merges Day into Night; That He has subjected the Sun and moon (to His law), each running its course for a term (time) appointed.
The fact that this miracle was performed by Rasulullah (s) and ‘Ali (as) does not in any way mean that they are God, on the contrary the example demonstrates the fact that such miracles / authority is bestowed by Allah (swt) to the true Ul’il Amr. If the Imams from Ahl’ul bayt (as) can perform the same miracles from prophetic possessions it is because they were the true Ul’il Amr who had been granted such power by Allah (swt).
In the end we would like to state that if the Shia believe that their Imams possessed the miracles of past prophets outrages to Maulana Manzoor Numani and his followers, then they should immediately issue edicts of Kufr to their own Deobandi Ulema who (according to their own books) possessed the same miracles attributed to prophets. We will unveil such references later in this chapter.
: Imam Ali (as) being the distributor of Heaven and Hell
Hazrat Ali said that all the Angels and Apostles had affirmed for him as they had affirmed for the Holy Prophet, and it was he who would send people to Heaven and Hell.The aforementioned tradition, further, tells that Hazrat Ali used often, to say: “I am the person who on behalf of God, will award Paradise or Hell to people. I possess the staff of Moses, and the ring of Solomon and for me all the Angels and Ar-Ruh (the spirit who is superior to Gabriel and all the other angels) had made the affirmation as they had for Mohammad”. (p. 117).
We would like t oquote similar reports from the books of our opponents . Ibn Hajr al-Makki al-Haythami in ‘Sawaiqh al Muhriqa’ page 429 comments on this as follows:
“Darqutni narrates that Hadhrat Ali carried out a lengthy discussion with those six people whom Hadhrat Umar had nominated for the committee. And in that this was also included: “I ask you to swear upon Allah and then say if there is anyone amongst you other than me about whom Prophet [saww] has said to that O Ali! You are the distributor of heaven and hell.” And they said: By God, he said this to none of us.
Antara has narrated from Ali Raza who said that the Holy Prophet [saww] said to him (Ali as) that you are the distributor of heaven and hell. On the day of judgement the fire will say: “This is for me and that is for you.
…Abu Bakr narrates that the Prophet (s) said no one will be allowed to cross the bridge on the Day of Judgement until he has the permission of Ali”
Sawaiq Muhirqa (Urdu), page 429 by Ibn Hajar Makki
Qadi Ayad in his famed work al-Shifa page 22 [Egypt] states:
“The pious predecessors and scholars of Hadith have stated that ‘Ali will send his enemies to Hell, and his friends to Heaven, as he is the distributor of Hell”.
Sunni scholar Al-Dailami records:
Hudaifa narrated: “Ali is the distributor of Hell”
Firdaus al-Akhbar, Volume 3 page 90 Hadith 3999
Mulla Ali Muttaqi al-Hind also quoted Maula Ali’s own admission in this regard:
“Ali said: I am the distributor of Hell”
Kanz ul Ummal, Hadith 36475
Zamkhashri also records the same tradition in his book ‘Asaas al Balagha’, Kitab Qaaf 2:
Ali(ra) said: “I am the distributor of Hell”
Mufti Ghulam Rasool in his book ‘Imam Zayn’ul Abideen’ quotes ‘Fatawa Azizi’ the authority work of his beloved anti-Shia figure Muhadith Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi from which one can draw an inference in relation to Maula Ali’s rank as the distributor of Heaven and Hell. He writes:
“Shah Abdul Aziz (d. 1239 Hijri) states that Muawiya bin Khadeej (a Banu Umayyad) would curse and abuse Maula Ali. On one occasion he arrived in Madina when Imam Hasan and his companions were sitting there. One person said to Hasan ‘O Master this Muawiya bin Khadeej curses and abuses Maula Ali. He [Imam Hasan] said ‘call him’. When Muawiya bin Khadeej was called he approached Imam Hasan and said ‘You curse and abuse (swear) at Hadhrat Ali?’ Upon hearing this Muawiya bin Khadeej became very embarrassed. Imam Hasan then stated ‘Don’t you know that on the day of Judgement, Ali will arrive at the Fountain of Kauthar. He shall not allow the hypocrites to pass by. On that day you shall also depend on Ali. You shall seek to quench by approaching Ali, you shall depend on him [to have a share. (Fatawa Azizi, page 227)
This demonstrates on the Day of Judgement, Ali shall be at the Fountain of Kauthar, he shall allow the Muslim to pass by the Fountain of Kauthar, but will prohibit the hypocrites from entering.
Imam Zayn'ul Abideen pages 42-43 (Daar ul Uloom Qadriyah Jilaniyah, London)
If Nasibies are opposed to this view on ‘Ali (as) then they should raise this issue with the Prophet (s) who declared this to be the role of ‘Ali (as) on the Day of Judgment. We would also like to ask the followers and lovers of Sipah-e-Sahaba (kr-hcy.com), ‘were these earlier scholars who ascribed to this view illiterates?’ These people have just taken the task of dividing Muslim Ummah by throwing suspicions and lies about different schools of thought on the instructions of their Jewish godfathers.
: Maulana Manzoor Naumani’s hilarious conclusion as to why Sunni texts are absent with information about Imamate?
While commenting on the topic of Mushaf Fatima [sa], Maulana Manzoor Maumani commented to show that Shia madhab is based on hadiths ‘invented’ by some people who used to attribute things to the Imams of Ahlylbayt (as). Naumani states:
Anyway, we are certain in our minds that Imam Jafar Sadiq. Imam Baqar and other men of the holy Prophet’s lineage of revered memory never gave expression to such a thing. In fact, such traditions have been concocted by the people who invented the Shi’ite faith and attributed it to Imam Jafar Sadiq. Imam Baqar etc., and Abu Basir, too, is one of them. Moreover, Abu Basir and Zurarah etc., who are the narrators of such traditions and in our opinion the main architects of the Shi’ite creed used to live in Kufa while Hazrat Imam Baqar and Hazrat imam Jafar Sadiq lived in Medina. These people used to come to Medina and, on return, relate the traditions like these in their exclusive circles and it is upon such reports and narrations that the foundation of Shiaism rests.
Reply One – The Shaykhayn went to extreme lengths to ensure that the concept of divine appointment was suppressed
Imam Abdul Hamid Ghazzali in ‘Sirr’ul Alameen’ provides a very frank admission on the efforts taken by the king pins of the Ahl’ul Sunnah Sect to suppress any mention that Rasulullah (s) has appoint an Imam to succeed him.
“Rasulullah declared “Of whomsoever I am Maula Ali is his Maula. Hadhrat Umar [r] accepted this congratulating Ali [r] saying “Congratulations you have become the Maula of men and women”, but after this his desire for power overtook him and when the Prophet said “Bring me a pen and paper so that I can remove any doubts over who will succeed me, Hadhrat Umar [r] replied “Leave him for he is talking nonsense”.
Sirr’ul Alameen, page 9
When the Sunni state was so opposed to the notion that Rasulullah (s) appointed an Imam, that they were prepared to question the sanity of the Seal of all Prophets (s) then what was the likelihood of their supporters (in later generations) taking Hadith on divine Imamate from the Ahl’ul bayt Imams themselves? A Sect whose king pin was prepared to question the mental state of the Prophet (s), would have no hesitation in attacking the Shi’a Imams for their position on Imamate.
Moreover we read:
“Abdullah bin Ala narrated: “I requested Qasim to make me writedown hadiths to which he replied: ‘During the reign of Umar bin Khattab, hadiths became in abundance therefore Umar asked the hadiths to be brought to him, when people brought them to him, he ordered to burn them and said that it was copying the Ahle Kitab”
Tabqat Ibn Saad (Urdu), Volume 6 page 197, Topic: ‘Qasim Bin Muhammad’ (Nafees Academy Karachi)
After reading the scenario mentioned in the exerpt from Ghazzali’s work, one can easily understand the motive behind burning of hadiths which were then in ‘abundance’!
“Umar said: If my term overtakes me, and Abu Ubaydal al Jarrah is still alive, then I would appoint him as Khalifa. If my Lord asked me, I would say, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying ‘Every Prophet has a trustworthy (companion), and my trustworthy companion is Abu Ubaydah ibn al Jarrah’. If my time overtakes me and Abu Ubaydah ibn al Jarrah has died, I would appoint Mu’adh ibn Jabal as Khalifas. If my Lord asked me ‘Why did you appoint him as a Khalifah’, I would say, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying ‘He will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection a distance in front of the men of knowledge’. They had both died during his Khalifah”.
History of the Khalifas who took the right way (Part English translation of Suyuti’s Tarikh’ul Khulafa), page 135
Did Umar have amnesia of the Hadith connected to the Wilayah of Ali (as)? Neither of the Hadith that Umar sought to rely on, would point to either individual’s right to succeed the Prophet (s) as his Khalifa. Does the fact that Rasulullah declared ‘Of whomsoever I am Master Ali is his Master’ that was then followed by Umar’s famed words ‘congratulations! O Ibn Abī Tālib! You are my master and (the master of) every Muslim’ demonstrate a greater right to succeed than those who alleged merits were trustworthiness and knowledge? Umar’s suppression of a Hadith, that he both heard and participated in openly acknowledging proves that he was not prepared to bring forth evidence of Imam Ali (as)’s Wilayah in the public domain.
Reply Two – The Ahl’ul Sunnah remained aloof from the Imams (as) preferring the company of their enemies
It seems that it has now become the trend of Sunnies and some of the contemporary Nasibies to show their affection for the Imams of Ahlulbayt (as) whilst bashing the Shia; the actual followers of Ahlulbayt (as) in words and deed whilst at the same time giving the enemies of Ahlulbayt (as) a revered position in their sect. Would those Sunnies and contemporary Nasibies be kind enough to tell us to which sect is adhering to the instruction of the Holy Prophet (s) in Hadith al-Thaqlayn and has derived its teachings from Ahlulbayt (as) disassociating themselves from their enemies and which sect has thousands of hadiths from people other than the Imams of Ahlulbayt (as) including their (as) all time enemies? As we know the Quran and Hadith are two basic aspects to derive Islam and people like Naumani have tried their utmost to evidence their relation to the Imams of Ahlulbayt (as) whereas the inventive Imams/ulema’ of their own sect have not only accepted Hadiths from open Nasibies; the nemesis of Ahlulbayt (as) but have also granted them a revered position in their sect deeming them ‘highly reliable individuals’ i.e Thiqa for example Hariz bin Uthman al Himsi (Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, V1 No. 436), Thawr bin Yazid al-Himsi (Tabaqat Ibn Sa`ad (Urdu), v4 part 7 page 294), Khalid bin Salmah bin al Aas (Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, v3 No. 181), Ishaq bin Sawaid bin Hubairah (Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, v1 No. 438), Abdullah bin Shaqiq al Aqeeli (Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, v5 No. 445), Al-Haitham bin Al-Aswad (Tahdeeb al Tahdeeb, v11 No.149) etc. Would they like to tell us how many thousands of hadith are present in their principle hadith books (saha satta) narrated from the Imams of Ahlulbayt (as)?
Reply Three – The Ahl’ul Sunnah’s most esteemed Hadith collector intentionally rejected the traditions of the Sahabi Abu Tufayl (ra) that would have invited the Ahl’ul Sunnah to the path of the Ahl’ul bayt (as)
Whilst the Sunni Imams of Hadith collection had no inhibitions about taking Hadith from individuals of Khwaarij and Nawasib persuasion whose schools entire raison d’etre was a hatred of Imam Ali (as), the treatment afforded to a Sahabi adherent of Ali (as) was very different. Contrary to the Sunni view that “all the Sahaba are just and truthful”, Imam Bukhari consciously avoided taking Hadith from the Sahabi Abu Tufayl (ra), a fact recorded by ibn asaakr and khateeb baghdaadi who recorded:
قال نعم كتبت عنه عن أبى كدينة ويعقوب القمى أخبرنا محمد بن أحمد بن يعقوب أخبرنا محمد بن نعيم الضبي قال سمعت أبا عبد الله بن الأحرم الحافظ وسئل لم ترك البخاري حديث أبى الطفيل عامر بن واثلة قال لأنه كان يفرط في التشيع
Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Yaqoob narrated from Muhammad bin Naeem al-Daabi who said: I heard Aba Abdullah al-Akharam who was asked as to why Bukhari abandoned the narration of Abu al-Tufail Amir bin Wathla? He replied: ‘Because he was excessive in Tashi’y (Shiasm)’.
Kitab Al-Kifayah, page 131 by Khateeb Baghdadi
Abu Tufayl’s (ra) only transgression was that he provided eye witnesses testimony to the excellences of Imam Ali (as). He for example narrated from the blessed tongue of the Prophet (s) the Hadith of Ghadir and Hadith al-Thaqlayn. He narrated from Imam Ali (as) his famous challenge:
“Ask me for I swear by Allah (swt) there is not a single thing that you can ask me about until the day of Judgement except that I can tell you about it and ask me about the book of Allah (swt), for I swear by Allah (swt) there is not a verse in it accept that I know whether it was revealed during the night or the day, whether it was revealed in a plain or on a mountain”
Jaam’e Bayan Alilm wa Fazlih, Hadith number 726 page 464
Al-Haythami in Majma al-Zawa’id, Volume 9 pages142 – 143, Hadith Number 14798 narrated from from Abu Tufayl (ra) a sermon of Imam Hasan (as) wherein he mentioned the Commander of the Faithful, Ali bin Abi Talib (as) as hte seal of the Awsiya and the Wasi of the Prophets.
Bringing this together Abu Tufayl (ra) narrated the fact that Ali (as):
- was appointed as the master over the believers at Ghadir Khumm
- possessed a complete knowledge of the Quran
- held knowledge of the unseen
- was the wasi of the Prophet (s)
Had the aforementioned excellences of Ali (as) as recollected by the Sahabi Abu Tufayl (ra) reached the Sunni masses, it would have easily dawned on them that the path to adhering to the true teachings of Islam lay in following Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) the legitimate successor and wasi of the Prophet (s). Imam Bukhari whilst compiling his a book deemed by the Ahlul Sunnah the most authentic book after the Quran, adhered to a policy of bias, prejudiced and self censorship, to the extent that he even treated a Shia Sahabi as persona non grata, by doing so he intentionally placed a remora before the Sunni masses, one that deprived them from knowing the excellences of Ali (as), excellences that would have enabled them to:
- recognize that he was the true successor of the leadership and knowledge of the Prophet (s)
- become drawn to Ali (as) recognizing him as the conduit to the correct interpretation of Islam
- acquire the correct understanding of Islam by clinging to the teachings of the Imams of his lineage as his teachings were cascaded through to each of them. Alas this was not the case.
Reply Four – The Imam of Ahl’ul Sunnah rejected the narrations of the Imams of Ahl’ul bayt (as)
Whilst the Ahl’ul Sunnah become overjoyed by those traditions narrated by the Imams of Ahulbayt (as) in their books and hence become excited allow us to cite the disparaging remarks made by their ulema about the Imams (as) in terms of deeming them untrustworthy narrators. For example about Imam Jafar Sadiq (as), Ibn Sa`ad stated: “He used to narrate a lot, he is not reliable and he is weak”. (Tahdeeb al-Tahdeeb, v2 No. 156). While it is written in Tahdeeb al-Kamal al-Mizzi (v5 No.950) that: “Yahya bin Saeed was asked about Jaffar ibn Muhammad, so he (Yahya) answered: ‘There is something in me against him’”. Moreover in the same book and also in Dhahabi’s Meezan al-Eitidal (v1 No. 1519) the view of Imam Malik is mentioned in this manner: “Musa’ab ibn Abdullah said: ‘Malik didn’t use to narrate from Jaffar until he linked it with those narrators who are high, then he would put his (Jaffar’s) narration after it” which means Malik did not trust Imam Jaffar Sadiq’s narration unless someone else narrated the same! So what do our opponents deem of those Ulema who maligned Ahlulbayt? When the Sunni Ulema rejected the testimony of the Ahl’ul bayt (as) Imams how would they entertain those of their narrations wherein they attested to the doctrine of their divinely appointed imamate, a doctrine that would in effect negate their cherished doctrine of man made appointment devised by the Shaykhain at Saqifa?
The reason that Sunni books do not have hadith propagating the divine Imamate and its aspects is due to the fact that their predecessors never turned to the Ahl’ul bayt (as) rather they intentionally narrated things from those who opposed their view of divinely bestowed Caliphate, that in consequence lead to the existence of two distinct parallel schools of thought on Imamate.
Reply Five – The early Sunni caliphs prohibited taking narrations from Ahl’ul bayt (as)
Historically there was a concerted effort by the man made Khilafah to ostracise the Ahl’ul bayt Imams and they were deemed with enemies of the State, so much so that the Imams were portrayed as adhering to a completely different religion. Sunni scholar Muhammad Moin ibn Muhammad Amin al-Sindi (d. 1161 H) in his book ‘Derasat al-Labib fi al-Auswa al-Hasana bel Habib ’ page 97 states that:
“Mu’awiya had a forceful order that no one should approach him adhering to the madhab (school) of Ali”.
Derasat al-Labib, page 97 (Sindhi Abadi Board, Karachi)
Mu’awiya’s comments are clear proof that his beliefs, propagated by him at the helm of the State, were not the same as the religion of Imam ‘Ali (as).
Here we see clear evidence that 5th Sunni Khalifa Mu’awiya was seeking to separate the religion of the state to that adhered by Imam ‘Ali (as). Whilst slaughtering the Shi’a was one method to quash Imamate ideology, the other method was indoctrinated the masses into hatred of the Ahl’ul bayt (as). In ‘Tarikh Madhahib al Islam’ Muhammad Abu Zahra records states in Volume 1 page 35:
“And during the reign of Banu Umayya the dignity of ‘Ali was attacked, he was cursed because Mu’awiya during his reign introduced the ugly bid`ah of cursing ‘Ali. His successors continued this tradition until the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The tradition entailed cursing the Imam of Guidance ‘Ali at the end of the Friday Sermons, the Sahaba’s remonstrations that this was wrong was ignored”
Tarikh Madhahib al Islam by Muhammad Abu Zahra page 35
It was during this backdrop of anti Ali (as) propaganda that Hadith were collected. The ‘Shams al Hind’ of Sunnies Allamah Shibli Numani stated:
“Traditions were first formed in book form in the days of Ummayads, who, for about 90 years, throughout their vast dominions stretching from the Indus in India to Asia Minor and Spain, insulted the descendents of Fatima and got Ali openly censured in Friday sermons at the mosques. They had hundreds of saying coined to eulogize Amir Muawiya”
Siratun Nabi, Volume 1 page 60
Umar ibn Abdul Aziz may have put an end to this practice during his reign, but you cannot change people’s hearts and minds, particularly those that were witness to this dirty practice for decades. When successive generations of Muslims had been indoctrinated on this staple diet of cursing Imam ‘Ali and his descendants in Friday prayers what likelihood would there have been for them to be receptive to the concept of divinely appointed Imamate, starting with Imam ‘Ali (as) particularly in Hadith literature? The likelihood was even less when one considers what Mufti Ghulam Rasool commented:
“The Ummayad and Madani Governments made every effort to hide from the Muslims narrations and Hadeeth of the Prophet narrated by Ali Lion of Allah (swt), and during that era, the Hadith scholars and Fiqh scholars were prohibited from narrating Hadith from Ali, nor his judicial decisions before the people, nor could they say anything in praise of him”
Subeh Sadiq by Mufti Ghulam Rasool, page 355
If any material on the Imamate of Maula Ali (as) did reach Hadith collectors it was heavily suppressed by the State this can be evidenced by the fact that Allamah Dr. Tahir ul Qadri in his book ‘The Ghadir Declaration’ p 78 Hadith 49 records this tradition from Ibn Athir’s ‘Asadul Ghabah fi Marifat as-Sahaba’ (1:572, 573):
“It is narrated by Zuhrī that Abū Junaydah Junda‘ bin ‘Amr bin Māzin said: I heard the Prophet (s) said: whoso deliberately lied about me will go to hell straightaway. I have heard it myself or I may grow deaf in both ears. The Prophet (s) returned from Hajjat-ul-wadā‘ and arrived at Ghadīr Khum, and addressed the people. He said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: one who has me as his guardian has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy.
“‘Ubaydullāh said: I said to Zuhrī: Don’t say these things in Syria, otherwise, you will hear so much against ‘Alī (ra) that your ears will get sore. (In reply to it) Zuhrī said: By God! There are so many qualities of ‘Alī (ra) safe and secure with me that if I narrate them I may be murdered.”
The Ghadir Declaration, page 78 Hadith 49
When Zuhri collated Hadith at a time when narrating the divine appointment of Ali (as) at Ghadhir Khumm was an offence punishable by death, then how could this concept be cascaded through to the majority Muslims whose only exposure about religion was that propagated by a State that upheld the concept of man made Imamate? When the Imams of Ahl’ul bayt (as) held a view of Imamate that was at variance to the majority school of the State who deemed it essential that the Sunni Khilafah restricted the people’s access to the Imams (as). Sunni scholar Mufti Ghulam Rasool (d. October 2010) tried his best to defend his Imam Bukhari whilst addressing the criticism of Abu Zahra that Imam Bukhari did not take Hadith from Imam Sadiq (as), he states as follows:
“It was not just Imam Sadiq (as) that Imam Bukhari refrained from taking Hadith from, he did not take any from four of the pure Ahl’ul bayt Imams who existed during his lifetime, namely:
The eighth Imam Ali Raza (as) (d. 209 Hijri), this was that Imam that at one time in Nishabur had more than twenty thousand scholars who benefited from listening to and recording Hadith, attendees included high ranking scholars of Hadith such Hafidh Abu Zurai Radhi (d.264 Hijri), Hafidh Muhammad Aslam Tusi (d.242 Hijri) Isaac bin Rai
The ninth Imam, Imam Taqi (as) (d. 220 Hijri)
The tenth Imam, Imam Naqi (as) (d.245 Hijri)
The eleventh Imam, Imam Hasan Askari (as) (d.260 Hijri)
Imam Bukhari lived during the times of these four Imams yet did not take narrations from them. Imam Bukhari’s esteemed book Sahih al Bukhari is empty with Hadith from the Ahl’ul bayt Imams, even though Hadith from the Ahl’ul bayt is something that could be located in the house of the Prophet and there is a well known saying ‘No one knows the going on inside a house than the people of that house’.
Imam Bukhari should have narrated Hadith from the Imams from the Ahl’ul bayt of the Prophet since they had Hadith in their possession”
We do not say that Imam Bukhari did this due to hatred, rather we say that it was due to difficulties that he did not narrate from the Ahl’ul bayt Imams. Muhammad bin Ismaeel Bukhari (d.256 Hijri) was alive during the Abbaside era, when he collated Hadith. When he said ‘In Sahih Bukhari the Hadeeth narrated are Sahih, and I have left a great many of Sahih Hadeeth’. Abdul Haleem Jundi said ‘Imam Bukhari was indicating that the Hadith that he had omitted were those in the honour of Hadhrat Ali and the Ahl’ul bayt. Imam Bukhari through his fear of the Abbaside Khalifa could not incorporate them in his Saheeeh al Bukhari”
Subeh Sadiq fi Fadail Imam Jafar Sadiq, pages 195-196
If Mufti’s assertion is correct then we have to accept that Imam Bukhari adopted a policy of self censorship, suppressing narrations from the Ahl’ul bayt Imams (as) through fear of his rulers. The state and in particular their Ulema had intentionally sought to portray the teachings of the Ahl’ul bayt (as) Imams, as concepts that were alien to Islamic thought, by doing so, they sought to portray the Imams (as) as deviants that people should stay aloof from. It is interesting that Maulana Numani seems to blame these ‘deviant’ beliefs on the companions of the Imams, when the earlier Sunni Ulema had no hesitation in attacking the Imams themselves for adhering to these beliefs, as can be proven by these comments of Ibn Khaldun in al-Muqaddimah:
And the Ahlulbayt invented some Madhabs and they themselves came up with their own jurisprudence (Fiqh). They based it upon the abuse of some of the Sahabah, saying that Imams are infallible and the differences in their statements. All these are futile principles. The Kharijites similarly had their own school. The great mass did not care for these schools, but greatly disapproved of them and abused them. Nothing is known of the opinions of these schools nor do we narrate from their books. No trace of them can be found except in regions inhabited (by these sectarians).
Muqadmah Ibn Khaldun, page 446
We should point out that the above passage of Ibn Khaldun has been translated differently by different people such as the English translation rendered by Franz Rosenthal and the Urdu translation rendered by Allamah Raghib Rahmani Dehlavi (Nafees Academy Karachi) but whatever translation is to be adopted, the gist of the admission made by In Khaldun in the above mentioned paragraph remains the same, namely the Ahlulbayt:
- devised their own Fiqh
- abused some of the Sahaba
- believed that they i.e. the Imams of Ahulbayt are infallible
It is on account of these beliefs that:
- they were rejected and abused by the masses
- nothing was narrated from Ahlulbayt in respect of these aspects of belief
If any suggestion is made by our opponents that by Ahl’ul bayt Ibn Khaldun was referring to the descendants of the Prophet (s) that appeared centuries later, they should know that Ibn Khaldun left no doubt about which individuals he was pinpointing for he states in his Tarikh:
أعلم أن مبدأ هذه الدولة أن أهل البيت لما توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كانوا يرون أنهم أحق بالأمر و أن الخلافة لرجالهم دون من سواهم من قريش
Beginning of Shia reign:
You should know that the Shia reign commenced following the death of the Holy Prophet (s) the Ahlulbayt believed that they were the ones who deserved to rule and caliphate was exclusively for them and no one from Quraish could make such a claim.
Tarikh Ibn Khaldun (Urdu), Volume 3 part 1 Chapter 1 page 25 (Nafees Academy Karachi)
One can see from this text that Ibn Khaldun believed that the doctrine that leadership was the exclusive right of the Ahl’ul bayt was one espoused by the Ahl’ul bayt at the time of the death of the Holy Prophet (s), not centuries later.
Clearly the credibility of Ibn Khaldun is far greater than Maulana Manzoor Numani as he has been widely praised (Shadharat al-Dhahab, v1 p76; Muajam al-Mu`alfeen by Umar Raza Kahalah v5 p104) and he has accused the Ahl’ul bayt of deviating for believing in the infallibility of the Imams. It is indeed amazing that Rasulullah (s) offered a guarantee that adherence to the Ahl’ul bayt (as) would ensure the Ummah would not get lead astray, yet Ibn Khaldun stated that the Ahl’ul Sunnah opposed the Ahl’ul bayt for their ‘deviated’ beliefs (on Imamate)! Similarly we have already just above cited the views of some other Sunni Ulema about Imams of Ahlulbayt (as). One should not be shocked by such hostility after all for the Sunni Ulema it was imperative that the doctrine of divine Imamah of the Ahl’ul bayt (as) was suppressed, after all any discussions about divine Imamate would automatically render the State religion, in particular the rulership of the Khalifas null and void, and just like a domino effect questions would have to be raised about the concept of man made appointment, going back through the ages and ultimately to the appointment of Abu Bakr at Saqifa. The Caliphs sought to counter this threat by oppressing the Ahl’ul bayt (as) Imams and treating them as enemies of the state, that automatically impeded the ability of most people from turning to them for religious guidance a fact attested to by the modern day Salafi scholar Abdulrahman al-Malami, who wrote in al-Tankeel, volume 1, page 403
وكان بنو فاطمة في عصر تأسيس المذاهب مضطهدين مروعين لا يكاد أحد يتصل بهم إلا وهو خائف على نفسه
“The progeny of Fatima during the era when sects came into fruition were oppressed and frightened, no one would dare contact them without feeling fear for himself“
Reply Six – The Imams relayed the knowledge of the Prophet (s) that the Sunni State had sought to suppress
We read as follows in Sahih al Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Number 121:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah’s Apostle . I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).
Abu Hurrayra adopted a policy of self censorship in regards to the knowledge of Rasulullah (s)- the Imams as inheritors of the knowledge of Rasulullah (s) possessed that knowledge but unlike Abu Hurraira they conveyed it to their Sahaba. If The Ahl’ul Sunnah and Nasibis mock Shi’a narrations on the knowledge of the inheritors of the Seal of all Prophets (s), then it should be no surprise, since it was their ancestors that forced Abu Hurraira to hide this same knowledge to save his life. It should also be pointed out that whilst Abu Hurraira had memorized two types of Prophetic knowledge, this does not in any way mean that the knowledge of Rasulullah (s) was restricted to two types of knowledge, the Prophetic knowledge possessed by the Ahl’ul bayt (as) as inheritance was far greater, Fakhruddin Raz in Tafseer Kabeer Volume 2 page 233 records as follows:
Ali said: ‘Rasulullah (s) taught me one thousand doors of knowledge, and every door contained another thousand doors of knowledge’
Reply Seven: A man from Numani’s own school loved to attribute things to Prophet (s)
When the State maintained a position of man made leadership, whilst painting the Imams of Ahl’ul bayt (as) as their enemies, and their lovers as rafidhi’s then there should be no confusion if their books have nothing from our blessed Imams (as). This being the then why do our opponents cast doubts on the Shia traditions narrated from Ahlulbayt (as) deeming them to be ‘inventions’ by the narrators? Obviously the merits of the imams of Ahl’ullbayt (as) will seem to be an ‘invention’ to Nawasib for they had abandoned their relation to the house of knowledge. But anyhow, let us point out a beloved ‘inventor’ of Naumani’s school. We read the following tradition in Sahih Bukhari Volume 7 Hadith 268:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
“The Prophet said, ‘The best alms is that which is given when one is rich, and a giving hand is better than a taking one, and you should start first to support your dependents.’ A wife says, ‘You should either provide me with food or divorce me.’ A slave says, ‘Give me food and enjoy my service.” A son says, “Give me food; to whom do you leave me?” The people said, “O Abu Huraira! Did you hear that from Allah’s Apostle ?” He said, “No, it is from my own self.”
So here we see that Abu Hurrairah was falsely attributing a hadith to the Holy Prophet (s). We would like to ask Naumani’s followers:
What would be the case had the people not asked Abu Hurariah the whereabouts of the hadith he told them?” How many such hadiths exist, when the people didn’t get suspicious and ask “O Abu Huraira! Did you hear that from Allah’s Apostle?”
This was not some isolated occasion, on another occasion his falsely attributing a Hadith to the Prophet (s) that attracted the ire of Ibn Umar as recorded in Jam’e Bayan al-Elm, Volume 1 page 1101 Tradition 2148 by Ibn Abul Barr:
Tawood said: I was sitting with Ibn Umar and then a man came and said: Abu Huraira says that water is not necessary you can do it or abandon it. Ibn Umar replied: Abu Huraira lied.
The margin writer of the book namely Abul Al-Ashbal Al-Zuhairi said:
‘The chain is Sahih’
Jam’e Bayan al-Elm, Volume 1 page 1101 Tradition 2148
We can see from both narrations that Abu Huraira falsely attributed Hadith to the Prophet (s), on one occasion acknowledging the he had done so when quizzed, and on the other being accused of being a liar for doing so. Before alleging that the Shia narrators attributed lies to the holy Imams (as) we would urge them to carry out a post mortem on their most prolific hadith narrator.
The harsh reality is Abu Huraria’s habit to attribute things to Prophet (s) was not a secret rather it was well known amongst the companions as testified to by Abu Hurariah. This stomach worshipper came into the fold of Islam in order to extinguish the fire of his stomach which he found that was easily possible while remaining in the company of the merciful Prophet Muhammad (s) and some of his true companions. This open secret was revealed by Abu Hurariah himself.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The people used to say, “Abu Huraira narrates too many narrations. ” In fact I used to keep close to Allah’s Apostle and was satisfied with what filled my stomach. I ate no leavened bread and dressed no decorated striped clothes, and never did a man or a woman serve me, and I often used to press my belly against gravel because of hunger, and I used to ask a man to recite a Quranic Verse to me although I knew it, so that he would take me to his home and feed me. And the most generous of all the people to the poor was Ja’far bin Abi Talib. He used to take us to his home and offer us what was available therein. He would even offer us an empty folded leather container (of butter) which we would split and lick whatever was in it.
Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 57, Number 57
Ayesha was also among those who used to refute the traditions of Abu Hurairah. Whilst we could cite several instances, we will highlight that once she invited him and tried to admonish him to which he exposed her knowledge as well. She asked him.
“O Abu Hurraira, what are these twisted narrations you are reporting to be from the Prophet (saw), have you not heard what I have heard? have you not seen what I have seen?’, He said, ‘O mother, verily you were busy with the mirror and kajol and making yourself pretty for the Prophet whereas I, by Allah, was not busy with anything.’”
Al-Hakim narrated it in ‘Al-Mustadrak’ Vol 3 No. 6160 and termed this tradition Sahih so did Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Fathul Bari under ‘Manaqib Jafar bin Abi Talib’.
Yes, nothing made him busy except filling his belly with other’s food. Such was the intense greed of Abu Hurariah that it turned out to be the best tool for the tyrants of Banu Umayah like Muawiah to use against the Prophet (s) and His Household (as). That is the reason Ibn Emaad Hanbali recorded the following testimony of Abu Hurariah in his authority work “Shadharat Al-Dahab” Volume1 page 64:
‘Praying behind Ali is more complete, Muawyia’s table is richer and leaving battle is safer’
That must have been the reason which made Maula Ali (as) state:
Ali (a.s) said: ‘The person who lies most about Prophet (s) is Abu Huraira’
Sharh Nahj Al-Balagha, Volume 4 page 68
Perhaps thats why we read the following testimony of Imam of Ahle Sunnah Al-Sh’uba recorded by Imam Dhahabi in Siyar alam al-Nubala, Volume 7 page 227:
شعبة يقول : ما أعلم أحدا فتش الحديث كتفتيشي وقفت على أن ثلاثة أرباعه كذب
“I am not aware of anyone other who has researched into Hadiths more than i have done and thus what i have come to know after my research is that 3/4 of entire Hadith work is comprised of fabricated traditions”
: Is the Shi’a belief in Imamate and the powers associated with it tantamount to accepting the continuation of Prophethood?
This has been another accusation of the Nawasib like that of Sipah-e-Sahabah (www.kr-hcy.com) that Shia belief in Imamate is somehow against the belief in the finality of the prophethood. The Deobandi Nasibi of Madrassa Inaamiyah in their article ‘Shi’iasm exposed’ also seek to suggest that the Shi’a belief on Imamate is a clouded acknowledgement that Prophethood has continued.
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
Shi’i religious literature abundantly clarifies the fact that Shias believe in the continuation of Nubuwwat after Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). The only cover presented by Shi’ism for this Kufr belief is a name, viz., Imaam. Instead of calling the one they believe to be a Prophet or Nabi or Rasool, they describe him as an Imaam, and instead of saying Nubuwwat they say Imaamat. But, in terms of Shi’i religion there is absolutely no difference between a Nabi or a Shi’i Imaam
After citing the traditions that we have already addressed in this article the Nasibi summarises with this bold conclusion:
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
No one should therefore labour under the misapprehension that Shi’ism believes in the Islamic concept of Finality of Nubuwwat. The “Qadianis claim to believe in the Finality of Nubuwwat, but their devious interpretation of this concept opens the way for them to accept Mirza Ghulam as a Nabi. In the same way, the Shi’as believe in the continuation of Nubuwwah inspite of their claim to believe in the Finality of the Nubuwwah of Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). Each and every attribute, office, function and institution exclusive with Nubuwwah is asserted for the Imaams by the Shi’as. One who studies the religious literature of the Shi’as will not fail to understand that on only this one basis of Imaamat, the Shi’as are not Muslims.
Reply One – The Shi’a Ithna Ashari are in no doubt that Muhammad (s) is the Seal of all Prophets
if possessing attributes, characteristic, powers, miracles of Prophets constitutes a belief in the continuation of Prophethood, then clearly Fatwas should be issue against, Shah Waliyullah, Shah Abdul Aziz, Shah Ismail Shaheed, Ibn Arabi, Maulana Jami etc – who attested all the above, attributing such powers to the Ahl’ul bayt Imams.
Like Nubuwwa, Imamate is a divine station via which the Imam guides people on religious and worldly matters. This station has been inherited from the Prophet (s) The difference between the two stations is that a Prophet (s) receives all matters directly from Allah (swt), whilst the Imam attains these things from the Prophet as the representative and inheritor of the Prophet (s).
The clear distinction between the Seal of all Prophets (s) and the divinely appointed Imams (a.s.) is in regards to divine revelation (i.e., a “resalat”, divine message). A Prophet’s primary duty is to DECLARE THE DIVINE MESSAGE for the purpose of correction and clarification of previous messages which were corrupted by human beings. The unique distinction of the Prophet Mohammad (s) as the “Seal of the Prophets” is unique because further revelations after him are unnecessary because Allah (swt) testified in the Holy Quran that the Prophets (a.s.) resalat is unique in that Allah (swt) “himself” will guarantee it’s preservation (i.e., it is not dependent on people’s actions).
For this reason, an Imam has no right to change or modify (in any way) the resalat of a Prophet (s) (which has been preserved), nor can he bring a new message. The duty of the Imam is to IMPLEMENT the resalat through his exercise of leadership and the corresponding duty of the followers of the Imam to obey. Only a Prophet (s) has the divine authority to change or modify the “Sunnat” of a preceding Prophet (as.).
We should also point out that Prophet Mohammad (s)’s position as the “Seal of the Prophets” means if ANYONE lays claim to the title of Caliphate, Imam or Wazir and attempts to modify or change IN ANY WAY the Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammad (s) then he is doing so without any authority or mandate to perform such actions and then would disqualify such an individual from any leadership position.
The ijmaa amongst the Shi’a Ithna Ashari is clear that Rasulullah (s) is the Seal of Prophethood, after Prophethood the chain of Imamate is proof that the chain of Prophethood has come to an end, if anyone claims Prophethood after Muhammad (s) such person is a Kaafir and should be killed. This can be evidenced from the words of our Imams.
Allamah Tabrasi cited a sermon of Maula Ali (as), that included a reference to the Seal of Prophethood:
“Rasulullah is the Seal of Prophets, no Nabi or Rasul will come after him. The chain of Prophethood has finished until the Day of Judgement, and after Muhammad (s), Allah (swt) has made us Khalifas upon the earth”
Itijaj Tabrasi page 80
Imam Jafar Sadiq (as) said:
“Prophethopod ended with your Prophet, and after him no further divine book shall appear”
Usool-e-Kafi volume 1 page 211
Imam Ali Raza (as) said:
“The Shari’ah of Muhammad shall remain until the Day of Judgment, no Prophet will appear after him until the Day of Judgment, Anyone who after our Prophet claims Prophethood or produces a revealed book after the Qur’an, then it becomes permissible who hears this to shed that person’s blood”.
Tafseer Burhan Volume 3 page 101
Shaykh Saduq said:
“The Shari’ah of Muhammad will not be abrogated until the Day of Judgment, no Prophet will appear after him until the Day of Judgement, Anyone who after our Prophet claims Prophethood or attests to bringing a Book after the Qur’an, then it becomes permissible to shed such a person’s blood”.
Alal al-Sharh, Chapter 101, page 124
Moreover we have in previous chapters already cited the statements of Imams of Ahlulbayt (as) about the obligation of adhering to the Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (s).
Reply Two – The Du’a of Ibrahim (as) proves that Imamate has not come to and end
We read in Surah Baqrah the appointment of Prophet Ibrahim (as) as Imam:
And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled: He said: “I will make thee an Imam to the Nations.” He pleaded: “And also (Imams) from my offspring!” He answered: “But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers.”
In the same verse we also read:
“Our Lord! send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”
These two verses demonstrate the fact that Prophet Ibrahim (as) supplicated for two things – Imamate and Prophethood. Whilst the du’a of Prophethhood was completed with the coming of Muhammad (s) we challenge Nawasib who claim Imamate is a continuation of Prophethood to show us a single Qur’anic verse that confirms that Imamate has come to an end, or a Sahih Hadith wherein Rasulullah (s) said that the du’a of Ibrahim in regards to Imamate is no longer applicable. The fact is the coming of Muhammad al Mustafa was the Seal on Prophethood, but the supplication of Ibrahim (as) for Imamate in his lineage remains until the Day of Judgement.
Reply Three – Hadith Manzila proves that Maula Ali (as) possessed the duties that were associated with the Prophethood of Prophet Harun (as)
The Shi’a are in no doubt that the station of Prophethood ended with Hadhrat Muhammad (s), and what greater proof can there be than the fact that by the fact Rasulullah (s) said to Maula Ali (as):
‘Your position to me is like the position of Haroon to Musa, except that there will be no prophet after me.’
The words of Rasulullah (s) ‘except there will be no Prophet after me’ proves that other than the station of Prophethood all the other ranks / duties that were associated with the Prophethood of Musa (as) had to also be possessed and filled by Maula Ali (as). The Qur’an makes clear three stations possessed by Harun (as) that in accordance with Hadith-e-manzila, Maula Ali (as) possessed.
|‘Your position to me is like the position of Haroon to Musa, except that there will be no prophet after me.’|
|Station||Prophet Harun (as)||Imam ‘Ali (as)|
|Brother||“And granted we unto him out of our mercy his brother Haroon”
(The Qur’an 19:53)
|“You are my brother in this world and the next”
Tareekh ul Khulafa by Suyuti, page 177
|Vizier||“Musa said: O Allah! Assign me a Vizier from my family, (that is) my brother Haroon. Add to my strength through him, and make him share my task: that we may celebrate thy praise without stint… (Allah) said: “We granted your requests, O Musa”
(The Qur’an 20:29-36)
|“When this verse descended, The Prophet (s) was on a mountain, straight after its descent, The Prophet (s) prayed to Allah, ‘Oh Allah! Through my brother Ali, ease the burden on my back’, and Allah accepted this prayer’
Tafsir Durre Manthur, by Jaladin Suyuti, Vol 4 p 528
|Khalifa||“…And Musa said unto his brother Haroon: Take my place (as khalifa) among the people.” (The Qur’an 7:142)||Ibn Abbas report that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said to Ali: ‘Your status to me as Aaron status to Moses except you are not a prophet, I shall not leave without you being my successor of every believer after me’. al-Albaani declared it’Hasan’ in Dhilal al-Janah, v2 p337.|
These are stations that were associated with Prophet Harun (as) during the lifetime of Musa (as). He was a Prophet, and the brother, vizier and Khalifa of Musa (as). The fact that Musa (as) outlived Harun (as) is of no relevance, if the station of Prophet, brother and vizier of Musa (as) is not nullified at the point of death, then neither is his station as Khalifa. Harun (as) was the Khalifa of Musa (as) in his lifetime and would have naturally succeeded him in the eventuality of him outliving his brother, the same applies to Maula Ali (as). With this being the case, when Maula ‘Ali’s position is the same as Harun (as) with the exception of Prophethood then we have to accept that he also possessed these same stations, if possession of these stations constitutes a belief in the continuity of Prophethood then they will need to attack those Sunni Ulema that recorded this Hadeeth and affirmed its authenticity. Pertinent to this fact Mufti Ghulam Rasool of ‘Daar-ul-Uloom Qadriyah Jilaniyah, London’ stated:
“The chain of Imamate was placed in the progeny of Imam Hussain (as):
When Hadrath Ali; the Lion of Allah was referred to as Hadrath Harun (as) and the chain of the prophethood was put in the progeny of Hadrath Harun (as) and not in the progeny of Hadrath Musa (as) likewise the chain of Imamate was put in the progeny of Imam Hussain (as).
Therefore, Abdul Haleem Jundi writes that Muffazzal bin Umro asked Imam Jafar Sadiq (as) that since Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain are from the progeny of Holy Prophet (s), both of them are sons (sibt) and leaders of the youth of paradise then why the chain Imamate was placed in the progeny of Imam Hussain and not in the pregeny of Imam Hassan. Imam Jafar Sadiq replied: “Both Musa (as) and Harun (as) were brothers and prophets. Allah (swt) placed the chain of prophet hood in the progeny of Harun (as) not in the progeny of Musa (as). Nobody can ask as to why Allah (swt) did so. Similarly Imamate which is the caliphate of Allah (swt) has been placed in the progeny of Imam Hassain. Allah (swt) is wise in his works and nobody can ask Him as to why he did so. [al-Imam Jafar Sadiq, page 147]”
Tazkirah Imam Hussain, page 86
Reply Four – The Imams have continued the main office / function of Rasulullah, the propagation of the Deen
The pathetic Nasibi Madrassa had stated the Shi’a believe that:
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
‘Each and every…office, function … exclusive with Nubuwwah is asserted for the Imaams by the Shi’as’.
We will respond to this by expanding on the role that Allah (swt) bestowed on Prophet Muhammad (s).
To aid this discuission, let us first of all ask our readers to ponder over our reason for being upon the earth. We have not been placed upon this earth without a reason; rather we have been created and placed here for a specific purpose:
“I only created jinn and man to worship Me”. (Qur’an, 51:56)
We have not been given free reign to do what we want upon the earth, without any direction or purpose in life, like other species. This can be gauged from these verses:
“Did ye then think that We had created you in jest, and that ye would not be brought back to Us (for account)?”
Does man think that he will be left uncontrolled, (without purpose)?”
These verses demonstrate that our Creator did not fashion us without a purpose, nor did He (swt) allow us to live a free life like animals, on the contrary he must have created us for some special purpose, for which he has a specific implementation plan in progress. When we are on the earth for a purpose then the justice of Allah (swt) means that He (swt) would have provided rules and regulation for the people, and then appointed specific through which these teachings can be cascaded to the normal people whop explain their reason for being on the earth and aid them to achieve success in this world and in the next. According to the Shari’a this is attained through Prophets , some were given specific instruction, others divine books, but thy all shared one common objective, to guide their people towards the teachings of Allah (swt).
In relation to the Seal of all Prophets, Allah (swt) had bestowed a specific function on the Prophet Muhammad (s) and this is set out in Surah Jumah:
It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error;
As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: And He is exalted in Might, Wise.
We see the role of the Prophet was four fold:
- Convey His teachings
- Purify the Sahaba
- Teach the Qur’an
- Teach them wisdom
All of the above functions are part of the position of the Prophethood, what in this day and age would be called the job description, i.e. the performance of specific duties. These four components in effect point to the office / function of the Prophet and they all come under one category, propagation. Now were these four components, only relevant to the era of Prophet Muhammad (s) or were they applicable after him? Are the people still dependent upon these themes after his death? There is no doubt that the duties the propogation of the Deen, was a duty borne on the shoulders of all Prophets. Did this duty become redundant after the death of the final Prophet (s)? What does past history tell us? When we look at the Prophets of Adam (as) through to Esau (as) we see that the need to continue cascading their divine teachings did not just disappear with the death of a respective Prophet, on the contrary on each occasion that Prophet (as) appointed a Wasi and successor to continue his mission / of conveying their teachings to the people. Surah Jumah is informing us of the specific duties that had been thrust upon the Prophet Muhammad (s). With the chain of Prophethood ceasing upon his death, should we conclude that the chain of executors also becomes redundant? With the death of the Holy Prophet has ignorance evaporated? Have the souls of all the people become purified? Was the Shari’ah completely implemented and understood by all so that there was no longer a need for a teacher to play that role? If we examine the matter in an unbiased manner, assessing human nature and psychology we have to accept all four functions of the Prophet (s) were still needed. We have to accept that an Imam is an absolute necessity, to implement the four Prophetic functions set out in Surah Jumah. If Madrassa Inaamia refuse to accept our argument then what response do they have to the second portion of the verse: “As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: And He is exalted in Might, Wise” .
This clearly means that the four parts of Prophetic duty were not just restricted to those that sat in the midst of the Prophet (s) whilst he (s) was alive. The verse states that this Prophetic duty has to be transferred to later generations, we therefore challenge Mardrassa Inaamiyya:
If the main function of the office of Prophethood, namely that of propagation is an exclusive role for Rasulullah (s) how is the distribution of Prophetic knowledge achieved when the Prophet’s physical existence on the earth is no more?
It is here that we believe that Imamate was responsible for completing this function of Prophetic office. . Rasulullah (s) delivered the four roles of Prophethood set out in Surah Jumah, and through his excellent character, practising all that he preached, he was the example for his followers of what to aspire to, a point stressed by Allah (swt):
Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.
Following the death of the Prophet (s)Maula Ali (as) was responsible for clarifying the teachings of Rasulullah (s) and providing a clear understanding of the Qur’an, because his example was like that of the Prophet (s), confirmed by the fact that we read in Riyadh al Nadira:
“Anas bin Mailk narrates that Prophet (s) said ‘Every Prophet has an example, mine is Ali’
Riyadh al Nadira Volume 3 page 109
Clearly Imam ‘Ali (as) could only be the example of Rasulullah (s), if he possessed some of the excellences that he (s) possessed. A foul mouthed son who runs a casino, spending his earnings on alcohol and women cannot be described as the example of a pious well mannered father, who spends his wealth in the way of Allah (swt). He could only be an example of his father, if he possessed the same traits, excellences of his father. When a son possesses the characteristics of his father, people will automatically remember their father when they see him, even if he is hidden from sight, and this is what Imam ‘Ali (as) as the example of the Prophet (s) achieved. We have one such example in Sahih Bukhari, Virtues of the Prayer Hall Volume 1, Book 12, Number 751:
Narrated Imran bin Husain:
I offered the prayer with ‘Ali in Basra and he made us remember the prayer which we used to pray with Allah’s Apostle. ‘Ali said Takbir on each rising and bowing
The role of Rasulullah (s) was to propagate the Deen, one that was not just restricted to those alive during his lifetime, but to all generations that followed him. As the ‘example of the Prophet’ Maula Ali (as) was tasked with shouldering the responsibility of continuing the four duties Prophethood set out in Surah namely: 1. Convey his teachings 2. Purify the Sahaba 3. Teach the Qur’an 4. Teach them wisdom
The third function, purification of the Sahaba has nothing to do with physical purification such as adherence to the rules / regulations of purity such as Wudhu / Ghusl. This can be attained by observing the first duty. Purity here is linked to purifying the heart, cleanising it of hatred and hypocrisy, and this can only be attained by having love for Maula Ali (a) and the other Ahl’ul bayt (as). There are clear Hadith wherein Rasulullah (s) had bestowed on ‘Ali (as) the same duties that he had in Surah Jumah:
|Prophetic duties bestowed on Rasulullah by Allah (swt)||Same duties placed on Imam ‘Ali (as) by Rasulullah (s)|
|Convey the teachings of Allah (swt)||“Ali is the Gate of Knowledge, and the Mobeen (one that will openly speak) to the Ummah those things that I brought as a Prophet”
Kanz’ul Ummal Volume 11 page 614-615
|Teach the Qur’an||“Verily among you will be one who will fight for the meaning of the Qur’an in the same way that I fought for its revelation. People asked will that be Abu Bakr or Umar? Rasulullah (s) replied ‘No, but he who is mending my shoes, that person was ‘Ali”
Kanz ul Ummal hadith number 32967
|Purify the Sahaba||‘Ali observed: By Him Who split up the seed and created something living, the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) gave me a promise that no one but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me.
Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0141
|Teach them wisdom||“I am the house of wisdom and ‘Ali is its Gate”
Narrated by Tirmidhi Volume 5 page 638
After Maula Ali (as) the same duty was transferred to the other Ahl’ul bayt Imams. If the suggestion is brought forward that these duties were implemented by all the Sahaba, then allow us to present a Hadeeth from Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 39, Number 539:
Narrated Sahl bin Sad:
We used to be very happy on Friday as an old lady used to cut some roots of the Silq, which we used to plant on the banks of our small water streams, and cook them in a pot of her’s, adding to them, some grains of barley. (Ya’qub, the sub-narrator said, “I think the narrator mentioned that the food did not contain fat or melted fat (taken from meat).”) When we offered the Friday prayer we would go to her and she would serve us with the dish. So, we used to be happy on Fridays because of that. We used not to take our meals or the midday nap except after the Jumua prayer (i.e. Friday prayer).
The day of Jumah was undoubtedly a blessed day, particularly for the Sahaba who could pray Salat behind Rasulullah (s), yet rather than recollect this fact we learn that the Sahaba’s happiness was linked to a glorious dish that would be served on Jumah. When the Sahaba were unable of understanding the significance of praying behind the Prophet (s) on Jumah, preferring to associate the day with a special dish what would be the likelihood of them implementing the mantle of Prophetic duties set out in Surah Jumah? These duties had to be continued and they were given to that Ahl’ul bayt Imams, Rasulullah (swt) connected with the Qur’an and have an assurance that following them was the path to correct guidance.
If Nasibis believe that affirming this constitutes a belief in the continuation of Prophethood then they really need to sharpen their takfeer knives against their own Imam, Shah Ismail Shaheed who said as follows:
“Completion of promises
Allah took promises from the Prophets, some of these were fulfilled by Rasul’s others by their representatives.
The start and end of Deen
Allah (swt) says in Surah Tauba:
It is He Who hath sent His Messenger with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).
It is clear that the propagation of Deen was begun by Rasulullah (s), and will be completed by Imam Mahdi….”
Munsub-e-Imamate page 108
In ‘Ihya Ulum id Din’ Volume 1 page 15, Imam Ghazzali also said that learned men continue the duties of Prophets:
“The learned and the warriors are nearest to the rank of Prophethood. The learned have been sent for which the Prophets have been sent, They are guides to the people”
Ihya Ulum id Din, Volume 1 page 15
There are numerous Qur’anic verses wherein the specific propagation duties of Prophets are set out.
The Messenger’s duty is but to proclaim (the message).
” and the duty of the messenger is only to preach publicly (and clearly).”
But what is the mission of messengers but to preach the Clear Message?
…The Messenger’s duty is only to preach the clear (Message).
… know ye that it is Our Messenger’s duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner.
Then we have those verses wherein Rasulullah (s) is addressed specifically:
… Thy duty is to convey the Message; and in Allah’s sight are (all) His servants.
… But what is the mission of messengers but to preach the Clear Message?
.. Thy duty is but to convey (the Message).
From these verses we can see that propagation falls into two categories and the they usage comes via two scenarios
- The duty to preach on matters, when they time has arisen, so that they have an immediate effect
- The duty to preach on matters, when the time has not arisen – e.g. Rulings on how to address a dispute between two groups of believers, or the duties of believers when living under the reign of an unjust ruler. From here we see that the propagation of the Prophet (s) likewise falls under two categories.
The first categories are those orders that were revealed with words and explanations, like we read in the Qur’an 006.019
.. This Qur’an hath been revealed to me by inspiration, that I may warn you and all whom it reaches.
Those orders whose meanings have been revealed, and Rasulullah (s) explained them in his own words, like rulings on the Shari’ah were all revealed to Rasulullah (s) through revelation, and he cascaded these teachings to the people, for their betterment, he conveyed matters pertaining to this world and the next through this mechanism, that was in accordance with the desire of Allah (swt), yet these orders did not come down Quranic revelation, they can be explained as the Hadeeth of the Prophet (s)
These verses we cited make it clear that the duty of the Prophet (s) is to conduct Dawah, propagate the message of the Prophet (s), it is logical that when the same Prophet (s) then refers to someone as ‘his part’, then it is clear that such a person also has a share in that aspect of the Prophetic duty, Ali (as) is that individual who shares the same duty a the Prophet (s)
We can substantiate our position by citing Surah Bar’aa incident. Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Volume 1 page 151 records the episode as follows on the authority of Imam Ali (as):
Ali (ra) said: ‘When ten verses from Bara’aa chapter were revealed to the Prophet (s), the Prophet called Abu Bakr (ra) and sent him to recite it before Mecca’s people, after that the Prophet (s) called me and said to me: ‘track Abu Bakr, wherever you find him take the message from him, and go to Mecca’s people and recite it to them on your own’. Thus I caught up with him in Jahfa, and I took the message from him, then Abu Bakr (ra) returned back to the Prophet (s) and said: ‘O Allah’s messenger, has anything been revealed about me?’ He (the Prophet) replied: ‘No, but Gabriel came to me and said: ‘Nobody is going to deliver this save you or a man from you’’.
Shaykh Ahmad Shakir graded the hadith as ‘Hasan’
This tradition evidences the fact that those rulings that must be delieverd to the people so that they must be implemented with immediate effect can only by the Prophet (s) or one that is a part of the Prophet.
Reply Five– The Sunni Ulema have themselves stated that there is no difference between Prophets and Imams except of prophethood
The ignorant Madrassa had stated:
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
the Shi’a believe that ‘Each and every attribute, office, function and institution exclusive with Nubuwwah is asserted for the Imaams by the Shi’as’.
The onus is now on these Nasibis to show us from the Qur’an and Sahih Hadith wherein Rasulullah (s) cited those attributes that were exclusive to the office, function and institution of Nubuwwah. Qiyas will not be acceptable in this regards, since this concerns issuing Takfeer against millions of Muslims, there needs to be evidence from these sources that backs the position of these Nasibi Mullah’s. If they are unable to submit such evidence then they have no right to bark against the Shi’a in this manner. They certainly have no right to bark when their own Imam Shah Ismail Shaheed, restricted the attribute of Prophets to be nothing more than that of an older brother! In Taqwiyat ul Iman page 97, whilst commenting on the narration ‘Worship your Lord and respect your Brother’ he said:
“It means that all the human beings are the brothers to one another. The one who is the most elderly and most pious is our elder brother. Allah is the Rabb of all and therefore, we should worship none but Him alone. Thus we understand that all the people who are close to Allah, regardless of whether they are Messengers or saints, are none but the helpless slaves of Allah, and our brothers, and as long as Allah has bestowed on them marks of greatness, they are like our brothers, they are like our brothers and we are instructed to obey them”.
Taqwiyat ul Iman, page 97
Madrassa Inaamiya are outraged that the Shi’a believe that their Imams possess the attributes of Prophets, one wonders why that should unhinge them, when their lead Imam believed that Prophets are merely our brothers with ‘marks of greatness’. This places Prophets in the same rank as ordinary believers, only that they are our older brothers. If the Ahl’ul bayt Imams possessed the attributes of individuals that they had defined older brothers then there really shouldn’t be much for Madrassa Inaamiya to wail about!
Moroever Sunni Hadith material suggests that a Kaafir can possess the attributes of Prophets. We have already cited a tradition from Sahih al Bukhari Volume 5, Book 58, Number 188:
Narrated ‘Amr bin Maimun:
During the pre-lslamic period of ignorance I saw a she-monkey surrounded by a number of monkeys. They were all stoning it, because it had committed illegal sexual intercourse. I too, stoned it along with them.
This means that a Kaafir was able to understand the language of the monkeys thus resulting in him becoming an active participant in punishing this promiscuous she monkey. Knowing the language of primates, places him on par with Prophet Sulaiman (as) who knew the language of animals. If (according to the Ahl’ul Sunnah) a Kaafir can possess the same attribute as a Prophet, why the objection if we believe that our Imams, the standard bearers of iman and good deeds possessed the attributes of Prophets?
If they have an issue with attributes such as miracles, knowledge of the unseen etc, then (as we have demonstrated already) they will need to issue takfir against Suyuti, Ibn Arabi, Shah Waliyullah and Ulema of Deoband that recorded such attributes to non Prophets in their works. As for the office, function and institution of Prophethood, it essentially means guiding the people to the true teachings of Allah (swt), and Imamate followed Prophethood to continue this task.
Imamate is not some irrelevant position in society, it concerns the leadership of the Ummah that succeeds Prophethood. When this is such an immense duty then it is logical that one occupying that position should possess the same excellences that were held by the Prophet (s). As a representative of the Prophet, we believe that the Imam must be a reflection of the Prophet (s) and as such should share his attributes such as his excellence, knowledge, perfection and manners should be such that he stands out in the Ummah as the focal point for the people to turn to. To us its common sense that one that sits on this position is an example of the Prophet (s) he has inherited that station and with it the knowledge, wisdom – he is the example of the Prophet (s), sharing his excellences, an example of the Prophet (s) with complete command of the Qur’an and Sunnah, understanding it and observing the same in his day top day life. The Imam should posses the excellence of the Prophet (s) when people see the Imam it automatically reminds them of the Prophet (s). We believe that when one is occupying the station of the Prophet (s) as his successor, then it is essential that one possesses those attributes worthy of this position, when non Muslims see the Imam they will think ‘If the Imam is so great, can we imagine the station of the Prophet’.
When one positioned as an Imam, has no knowledge of Islam, and is a drunk, homosexual, will it attract people to the faith or drive them away?
In the West it is common for employers (particularly large organisations) to issue a person specification as part of the recruitment process that sets out the skills / knowledge / experience that will expected of candidates applying for a vacant post. The reason that this is done is so that employers can shortlist the best candidates, and candidates are clear about the attributes required for this post. This is the extent to which conscientious employers will seek to ensure that they get the best candidate for a vacant, so would Allah (swt) and his Rasul (s) not care about the skills / knowledge / experience that should be possessed by that is to succeed him (s) at the helm of the state.
Allow us to expand on this matter with two examples:
If a Baker decides on taking a few days vacation, and is keen on keeping his business open during his absence, will he hire a carpenter to maintain the business or a fellow baker with same skills / knowledge / experience as him? Can a carpenter perform the same skills / duties as a Baker?
When a teacher is going away will he appoint an illiterate person to take charge of lessons in his absence or will he seek to appoint in his place that person who can continue his teaching to his students who is on his level on terms of knowledge and excellence.
The Imam’s excellence in knowledge and o ther traits should be such that when you see him you can recognise the greatness of the Prophet (s). We believe that Imam possesses the excellences of the Prophet because he is representing the Seal of all Prophets, Muhammad al Mustafa and as such inherits the same skills / knowledge to lead the Ummah. If an individual poses a question to the Prophet (s), the Imam is able to answer the question in the same way as the Prophet (s) because his he has inherited a key aspect of his (s) excellence, his knowledge and wisdom which is why Rasulullah (s) said to Ali (as) in the presence of the Sahaba:
“You are my brother and inheritor”, when the Companions asked what previous Prophets had left as inheritance, he replied “The Book of God and his Sunnah the teachings of that Prophet”.
Riyad al-Nadira, by Muhibbuddin al Tabari, Vol 3 p 123
If this hatred filled Madrassa remains unconvinced on our logical argument and maintain their takfeer stance then allow us to present the comments of one of your own Sunni Imams, Shaykh Ahmed Sarhandi:
“Although the station of Prophethood has come to an end, yet the perfect followers of prophets (as) possess the share of the excellences and virtues of the prophethood in respect of secondariness and inheritance”
1. Maktubat Imam Rabbani, Volume 2 page 43, Letter No. 6
2. Maktubat Imam Rabbani, Volume 1 page 481, Letter No. 260
These comments of Sarhandi are as clear as day that whilst the station of Prophethood has come to an end, the excellences attributed with this station can still be attained. The term Prophethood may no longer exist, but the Saints of the Ummah can possess these excellences / characteristics. Are these comments tantamount to believing in the continuation of Prophethood? If they are then Madrasaa Inaamiya need to issue Takfeer against a major ‘Mujaddad Alf-e-Thani’.
Ibn Arabi assesses matters further by identifying those that can possess the attributes of Prophets:
“From the study and contemplation of the Darud we have arrived at the definite conclusion that there shall, from among the Muslims, certainly be persons whose status, in the matter of prophethood, shall advance to the level of prophets, if Allah pleases. But they shall not be given any book of law”.
Futuhat al-Makkiyya, Vol.1, p.545
Ibn Arabi is referring to the status of the Ahl’ul bayt (as) derived from analysing durood sharif and that these individuals can attain the excellence / rank associated with Prophethood, which is why this salutation encompasses Rasulullah (s) and his family. If based on the conclusion of Ibn Arabi, we likewise believe that the Ahl’ul bayt Imams (who come within this salutation) attain the excellences of Prophethood because they are the inheritors of the Seal of all Prophets (s), then why the objection?
Imam of Ahle Sunnah, Ibn Hajar Asqalani quoted Imam Qurtubi on the point of pious people resembling prophets in certain traits while commenting on a tradition (Sahih Bukari Volume 9, Book 87, Number 112):
“Qurtubi says that a truthful and pious Muslim is he whose case resembles the case of prophets and he is honoured like prophets with the knowledge of the Unseen.”
Fathul Bari, Book: Interpretation of Dreams, Hadith 6468
We have already cited the words of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehalwi in terms of the infallibility of Imam but from that excerpt here we shall cite that sentence which is particularly pertinent to the topic:
“… Now because the Imam is infallible (Ma’sum) and holds the position of the Prophet, …”
Tauhfa Athna Ashariya, page 108, published by Noor Muhammad Kutbkhana, Karachi.
If our opponents still refuse to comment on this text then allow us to bring the matter close to home for them, by citing their the darling of their Deobandi movement Shah Ismail Shaheed Dahalwi who wrote in his legendary work ‘Mansab-e-Imamate’ pages 85-86:
“Some perfect people resemble Prophets in one excellence some resemble them in two, and some in there. Likewise some resemble the Prophets in all of the miracles/skills, therefore Imamate has certain stage, and some people will be having status higher than the others in Imamate. Hence whoever resembles the Prophets in all the skills and attributes, his Imamate will be superior to all the perfect people even. And there will be no difference in him and a Prophet, other than the status of Prophethood. And if anyone would have got the status of Prophethood after Prophet Muhammad (s), it would have been this perfect man….and it can be said of such a great individual that between the Prophet and him other than the station of Prophethood there is no other difference, as said by Prophet (s) in favor of Ali that your position unto me is that of Harun to Musa, but there will be no Prophet after me”.
Mansab e Imamate, page 85-56
O Madrassa Inaamiya and their likes! these are not the comments of a rafidhi or some deviant Sunni, with Shi’a leanings – these are the words of your leading Imams/scholars. You stated quite clearly that “In terms of Shi’i religion there is absolutely no difference between a Nabi or a Shi’i Imaam”. We now ask you if such a belief is any different to the comments espoused by Shah Ismail Shaheed, wherein he said ‘it can be said of such a great individual that between the Prophet and him other than the station of Prophethood there is no other difference’. If your scholars remains ‘rahimullah’ and ‘al-Muahhdith’ despite this aqeedah, then why should the Shi’a be deemed Kaafir for believing the same? Clearly these pathetic Nasibis need to take a close look at their own aqeedah before writing such material.
We will end this reply with this parting gift for the Madrassa Inaamiya to ponder over, a gift that appears in the memorable words of Imam Rabbani; Saykh Ahmed Sirhindi who said:
“Because the traits of Shakhayn resemble to the traits of prophets (as)…”
Maktubaat Imam Rabbani, Volume 1 page 425 Letter 251
Reply Four: Allah (swt) endows those that he appoints as his Imams with the common attributes associated with Prophethood
We believe that both Prophethood and Imamate are divine ranks, Allah (swt) sends such people to guide the Ummah to the right path. Such individuals excel above all others in the Ummah, they are the examples for the Ummah of the perfect man, and act as the focal point for people to for guidance. If Prophets were endowed with certain attributes, the Imam (as) who has continued to provide guidance to the Ummah has also been endowed with the same attributes. We shall highlight the common attributes possessed by Prophets.
|Truthfulness||Mention in the Book Abraham: Surely he was a most truthful Prophet. (Maryam, 19.41) Mention in the Book Ishmael; surely, he was a man of his word, and he was a Messenger, a Prophet. (Maryam, 19.54) Mention in the Book Enoch; surely he was a most truthful Prophet. We elevated him to an exalted place. (Maryam, 19.56-7) We also read in the Qur’an that a fellow prisoner addressed the Prophet Joseph, saying, Joseph, O most truthful one ! (Yusuf, 12.46)||Imam ‘Ali (as) said:
‘I am a man of Allah, the brother of the Prophet, and the Great truthful one (Siddiq Akbar), anyone who claims this other than me is a liar, I offered Salat 7 years before anyone else’.
Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 1, Page 69
|Trustworthiness (Amana)||amana, an Arabic word which means ‘trustworthiness’. It is derived from the same root as the word mu’min, believer. Being a believer implies being ‘a trustworthy person’. The Prophets, upon them all be peace, were foremost in belief and therefore at the summit of trustworthiness. To stress this principle, God summarizes the stories of five Prophets using the same words: The people of Noah denied the Messengers. When their brother Noah said to them: ‘Will you not fear God and avoid evil? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you?’ (al-Shu’ara’, 26.105-107)||This same excellence was also possessed by Imam ‘Ali (as), the Makkans had left all their trusts, with Rasulullah (s) and on the night of Hijrah, before setting off Rasulullah (s) gave these trusts to Imam ‘Ali (as) tasking him to return them to their owners, a fact testifid by Abu Bakr who said:“Verily Allah (swt) and his Prophet (s) spoke the truth, I heard Rasulullah (s) say on the night of Hijrah as we left Makka ‘My hand and Ali’s hand are EQUAL in dispensing justice”
(Taken from Manaqib by Ibne Maghazli al Shaafi page 98, this hadith can also be found in Kanz al Ummal Volume 11 page 604)
|Conveying the teachings of Allah (swt)||Prophet Nuh (as):
PICKTHAL: He said: O my people! There is no error in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. I convey unto you the messages of my Lord and give good counsel unto you, and know from Allah that which ye know not.Prophet Hud (as):
PICKTHAL: I convey unto you the messages of my Lord and am for you a true adviser.Rasulullah (s):
YUSUFALI: Say: The Messenger’s duty is only to preach the clear (Message).
|Rasulullah (s) said: “Ali is the Gate of Knowledge, and the Mobeen (one that will openly speak) to the Ummah those things that I brought as a Prophet
Kanz’ul Ummal Volume 11 page 614-615
As the successor the mission of the Prophet (s), Imam ‘Ali (as) was endowed with the common attributes of Prophethood, it is therefore not surprising that Rasulullah (s) declared “If there was a Prophet after me it would be Ali”
Yanabi al Mawwadah, page 294
We have at other points cited the fact that Imam Ali (as) was referred to by Allah (swt) as the Nafs of the Prophet (s) during the event of Mubahila. Suyuti has commented:
In the above verse (3:61), according to what Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari said…the word “our selves” refer to the Prophet and Ali. Thus Ali is referred as “the self” of the Prophet (Nafs of the Prophet).
Tafseer Dur al Manthur, Volume 2 pages 68-69
When Imam Ali (as) is the nafs of the Prophet (s), then it logical that he would share the same excellences and attributes possessed by the Prophet (s).
These attributes were similarly cascaded through the remainder eleven Imams. Whilst the table highlights the common attributes of Prophets that Imam ‘Ali (as) possessed, Rasulullah (s) also highlighted the fact that he possessed the special attributes of past Prophets:
“He who wants to see Adam (as) in his knowledge, Noah (as) in his determination, in his clemency, Moses (as) in his intelligence and Jesus (as) in his religious devotion should look at Ali Ibn Abi Talib (as)”
Riyadh al Nadira Volume 2 page 239, Dhikr Ali ibn Abi Talib
If possession of Prophetic attributes constitutes a belief in the continuation of Prophethood then perhaps the Nasibi should explain why Rasulullah (s) said Imam ‘Ali (as) shared the above attributes of past Prophets.
Reply Five – A Deobandi scholar believed that an exclusive attribute of the Prophet could be possessed by others
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
‘the Shi’a believe that ‘Each and every attribute…exclusive with Nubuwwah is asserted for the Imaams by the Shi’as’.
Whilst they had no bassis to make such a claim allow us to present an exclusive attribute of Rasulullah (s) that their Mullah believe can be possessed by others. Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi wrote:
“The word Rahmat-ul-lil-Aalameen (mercy unto the worlds) does not exclusively denote the special trait of the holy prophet (Sallal Laahu Alaihi Wasallam), but other friends of Allah, and Prophets and Ulama-e-Rabbaaniyeen are also a mercy undo the world (Rahmat-ul-lil-A’lameen), even though the holy Prophet (Sallal Laahu Alaihi Wasallam) is the best of them all. Therefore, it is permissible if it is said about someone else by way of interpretation”
Fataawa Rasheediyah, by Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, 218
The title Rahmatul Lil ‘Aalameen is one that Allah (swt) betowed on our Holy Prophet (s) something that no previous Prophet possessed but Gangohi not only rejected such notion but in order to include himself in this category, he says that it is permissible to call the Ulama-i-Rabbaaniyeen as “Rahmat-ul-lil-A’lameen” too. Thus, despite the exclusivity of this title Madrassa Inaamiya believes that a title that Allah (swt) bestowed on his beloved Prophet (s) is also shared by their scholars/Imams!
Reply Six: A Deobandi Mullah possessed the excellence of lengthy fasts, previously possessed only by the Prophet (s)
Madrassa Inaamiyah states:
Each and every attribute, office, function and institution exclusive with Nubuwwah is asserted for the Imaams by the Shi’as.
If some attributes which (according to Madrassa Inaamiyah) are exclusive to Nabuwwah are believed by the Shias to be possessed by their Imams (as) make Madrassa Inaamiyah feel the continuation of Prophethood and hence they did takfeeer at Shias, then we would like to see the edict of Kufr by the same idiotic Madrassa against their grand scholar who according to them had attributes/traits which only Last Prophet (s) possesed. We read in Sahih al Bukhari, Book of Fasting Volume 3, Book 31, Number 145 as follows:
The Prophet fasted for days continuously; the people also did the same but it was difficult for them. So, the Prophet forbade them (to fast continuously for more than one day). They slid, “But you fast without break (no food was taken in the evening or in the morning).” The Prophet replied, “I am not like you, for I am provided with food and drink (by Allah).”
This tradition demonstrates the excellence of Rasulullah (s) over all others. Whilst the Sahabah were incapable of fasting consecutively, Rasulullah (s) was provided with sustenance by Allah (swt). This excellence could not be attained by any of the Sahabah that Madrassa Inaamiya revere, but curiously after hundreds of years, it could be obtained by Madrassa Inaamiya’s grand `Alim Imdadullah Muhajir Makki. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi records in his esteemed work Imdaad al-Mushtaq:
Moulana Zakariyah says: “He (Imdadullah Muhajir Makki) withdrew himself from the population and went towards depopulation, he used to hate the creation and used to live in the wilderness of Punjab etc, and most often he would embrace starvation; the Sunah of Holy Prophet (s) to the extent that sometimes 8 or sometimes more than 8 days would get passed in the same condition and not a grain would go down his blessed throat.”
Imdaad al-Mushtaq, page 14 (Book corner, Main Bazar, Jehlum. Pakistan)
Reply Seven- The writings of the Deobandi Ulema demonstrate that they believe in the continuation of Prophethood
Rather than throw baseless lies at the Shi’a it would be far better for Deobandis to remain silent on this topic area since their filthy pens have themselves opened the window of opportunity for Qadianis, for their great Ulema have made comments that point to Prophethood continuing (astaghfirullah).
Maulana Nanotovi a major Deobandi scholar declares the following in ‘Tahzeer ul Naas’ page 25:
“If for example Prophet is born after the Prophet (s), it still does not affect his position as the Seal of all Prophets”.
Tahzeer ul Naas, page 25
If believing in the possibility of further Prophets coming is not kufr then what is? Furthermore Ashraf Ali Thanvi silence on kufr aqeedah further casts doubts on the belief of the Deobandis on the finality of Prophethood. Thanvi in his monthly magazine Al-Imdad had the audacity to publish a letter written to him by one of his followers. This is what he wrote:
“I see in a dream that while reciting the Kalima, `There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’, I am using your name instead of ‘Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’. Thinking that I am wrong, I repeat the Kalima, but despite wishing in my heart to say it correctly, my tongue involuntarily says ‘Ashraf Ali’ instead of the Holy Prophet’s name. …. When I wake up and remember my mistake in the Kalima, to make amends for the mistake I send blessings upon the Holy Prophet. However, I am still saying: ‘O Allah, bless our master, prophet and leader Ashraf Ali’, even though I am awake and not dreaming. But I am helpless, and my tongue is not in my control.”
“Al-Imdad”, issue for the month of Safar, by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi 1336 A.H., circa 1918, page 35
Thanvi in his reply to the letter (also printed straight after) interprets the dream as follows:
“In this incident, it was intended to satisfy you that the one to whom you turn [for spiritual guidance, i.e. Ashraf Ali] is a follower of the Holy Prophet’s example”
Al-Imdad, issue for the month of Safar, by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi 1336 A.H., circa 1918, Page 35
Any respecting scholar would have been ashamed to publish such a dream, and if he was to do so he would have sought to make clear that the recital of the kalima was kufr. Rather than condemn his follower for this kufr act. Madrassa Inaamiya is suggesting that the Shi’a are hiding their beliefs about the Seal of Prophethood, and have replaced the term Imam with the term Prophet, what is hidden by this kufr Kalima? The kalima recited (albeit in a dream) is a clear affirmation in the continuation of Prophethood, and rather condemn these words as Kufr, Thanvi seeks to rationalise the dream in order to elevate his position to his audience. What is left of Islam and the finality of the Prophethood if a Nasibi can substitute the Shahada in preference of his teacher and yet this is not deemed kufr? What faith should anyone have of your leading Mullah who made no comment about this kalima rather twisted to prove his excellence? If despite such blatant kufr aqeedah a major Deobandi Mullah’s iman in the Seal of all Prophethood remains unaffected, why are the Shi’a being attacked by Thanvi’s adherents for the beliefs about Imamate?
- Defining the concept of Imamate
- The doctrine of Imamah from a Sunni perspective
- The Takwini and Tashri’i authorities of Prophets and Imams
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part I)
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part II)
- The Doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part III)
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part IV)
- The Doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part V)
- The doctrine of Imamate from the Qur’an
- Obeying the Ul’il Amr
- Nasibi objection at the false claimants of Imamate
- The Nasibi methodology of producing the Abdullah Ibn Saba card to negate the doctrine of Imamate
- No public Twitter messages.