Chapter Four: The Takwini and Tashri’i authorities of Prophets and Imams
This will server as a kind of prerequisite to some of the topics discussed in later chapters.
Allah (swt) chooses and appoints some of his close and beloved servants for the implementation of Takwini affairs and His decisions like He (swt) through Hazrat Jibrail and various subordinate angels destroyed and punished the oppressive and disobedient nations, while some prophets and their adherents were helped and rescued in the same manner. Similarly Hazrat Mekail and his various subordinate angels are appointed for the distribution of food and for the issues of rain and likes.
Izrail and other angels are also delegated similar duties and authorities. These angels, utlisie divine authoritative powers granted by Allah (swt), through his will and permission of Allah (swt) as a means if implementing His (swt) instructions. It would not therefore be incorrect not be incorrect to say that angels helped Muslims in the Battle of Badr this cannot be deemed polytheism [Shirk] due to the fact that it was Allah (swt) who had sent angels to help the Muslims. This aid and the reasons for getting relief are in fact decided by Allah (swt), if some authority or duty is delegated by Allah (swt) and subsequently executed with his permission, only a bigot would have such reservations.
We read in the Holy Quran:
[Shakir 79:5] Then those who regulate the affair.
Shah Abdul Aziz Muhadith Dehlawi writes under the commentary of this verse:
“Al mudabaraat al amra” means perfect and complete hearts who after getting access to the rank of unification, tend to carry the creation to the Creator (raising them from a low rank to an exalted one) and they share the attributes of Allah (swt) and then are considerate to the masses.”
Tafseer Fatah-ul Aziz, chapter ‘am (30th para), page 23, published in Delhi.
Are angels exclusively designated for implementing Takwini affairs? Or are such powers to discharge duties cascaded to those exalted beings who are superior to angels thus making them the administrator of the angels [those who regulate the affair]?
The researchers of Ahle Sunnah agree that exalted beings are designated at a rank above angels for the implementation of the Takwini affairs. Angels and others are engaged and act as their subordinates for the implementation of Takwini affairs. We read in Tafseer Baydawi:
Allah (swt) tells us that when the souls of exalted beings separate from their bodies they head towards greatness, and it is on account of their greatness that are incorporated amongst those that have authority over world affairs. These sacred souls after their death intervene in the affairs of the world.”
Shaykh Abdul Haq Dehalwi has also recorded while copying from Qadhi Bedhawi:
“These souls belong to perfect humans, when they leave their bodies at the point of death, they do so with ease and joy and travel towards Alam-Malakout and visit the sacred places [they are] on account of their piety, greatness, power and authority included amongst the mudabaraat al amra [those who regulate the affairs].”
Ashat al-Le’ma’at, Volume 3 page 410 (published in Lucknow)
A similar notion is also present in Allamah Alusi Baghdadi’s work Tafseer Ruh al-Maani, Volume 30 page 64.
Shah Ismaeel Shaheed Dehalwi records from his master Syed Ahmed Barelvi:
“The Imams of this path and the elite of this group are considered amongst those angels who receive intuition from elite angels about regulatory affairs and they strive to propagate them, hence their state should be considered equal to that of the angels.”
Siraat e Mustaqeem, pages 68-69 (Islami Academy Lahore)
The above mentioned abilities and qualities were for companions and Tabi’in while the traits and authorities of Prophet Muhammad (s) and the Imams of Ahllubayt (as) are far above evidenced by the fact that the angels and their Leader Hazrat Jibrael (as) cannot trespass Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. a tree in the seventh heaven) whilst the Holy Prophet (s) is designated to the station of Qaba Kosein. Such people are accordingly issued with directives to implement Takwini affairs in accordance with the rank they possess, which would certainly greater than that bestowed on the angels due to their superiority over the angels. Shah Ismaeel Shaheed writes on this topic:
“Likewise, the perfect from amongst conduct regulatory actions that can be the source of all the services for angels. The killing of pagans, for example by angels through fighting or prayers can also be done by perfect people through fighting or prayers. The service of providing benefit through angels can also be performed by such people, the prayers and remembrance of Allah (swt) attributed to a class of angels is also shared by these people, the services of teaching, preaching and communication methods performed by angels are also done by them. For establishment of a just kingdom and lofty caliphate, spiritual imamate, prophethood, apostleship, and seal of prophethood, the services designated to angels can also originate from them and it should be thought that they can perform all the other services.”
Siraat e Mustaqeem, page 176 (Islami Academy Lahore)
Can anyone be superior to Holy Prophet (s) and Ali al-Murtada (as) or be higher in perfection over them? It is an attested fact that they are head of all angels for the implementation of all types of Takwini affairs.
Shah Ismaeel Shaheed has made it crystal clear that Allah (swt) implements all kinds of work of awarding punishment or benefits throughout the universe through these revered people, it is not therefore wrong to attribute such acts to them because they have performed these duties on the instructions of the Lord of all creations Allah (swt), hence He (swt) is the one who is the actual regulator of these affairs.
So what is the element of Shirk in this? Shah Ismaeel Shaheed has elaborated this point with the words of his master Syed Ahmad Barelvi:
“The special disciple of the King of India has the right to say that “our kingdom extends from Kabul City to the sea shores”, likewise those exalted beings with high ranks have the complete and undisputable right and authority of operating the issues of “Aalam-e-Mithal” and “Aalam-e-Shahdah”, they have the right to attribute everything to themselves, for example, they have the right to say that from the earth till the heavens, everything is in our kingdom. This statement means that everything from the earth till the heavens is in the kingdom of our Lord, and they can be attributed towards us, or say that nothing has the specification of being attributed towards us and accept that nothing can be attributed towards us.”
Siraat e Mustaqeem, pages 199-200 (Islami Academy Lahore)
Similarly Maula Ali al-Murtadha (as) heads the list of those who award punishment or benefit on the instructions of Allah (swt) as Shah Ismaeel Shaheed wrote:
“Hadhrat Murtadha (ra) has a proven edge of merit over the Shaykhan namely his geater number of adherents. Besides that, the status of Wilayah, rather Qutbiat, Ghauthiat and Abdaliat and others like these flowing from him. His share in the wealth of the wealthy and lordship of the lords isn’t hidden from the disciples of spiritualism.”
Siraat e Mustaqeem, pages 115-116 (Islami Academy Lahore)
Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi while writing on the Takwini authorities of Ahlulbayt (as) writes:
“The vast bulk of the Ummah deem Hadhrat Ali and his progeny as Peer and Murshid and deem Takwini affairs to be related with them. They always make dua, fatiha, durood, charity, Nazr Nyaz for them as has been the routine of all Awliyah Allah”
1. Tauhfa Athna Ashariya, pages 39-40 (Thamar Hind, Lucknow)
2.Tafseer Azizi, pages 27-28 (Delhi)
The urdu translator of Tuhfa Athna Ashariya has translated ‘Takwini affairs’ as ‘The affairs of the world’
Tuhfa Athna Ashariya, page 338 (Noor Muhammad Kutub Khana, Karachi)
Imam Rabbani; Shaykh Ahmed Sarhandi also believed in the same exalted rank of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (as). He wrote:
“O Brother! Indeed Imam Ali is the holder of the keys of Wilayah of Prophet Mohammad (s) and the training regime for the status of Aqtaab, Autaad and Abdaal who are from amongst the reserved awliyah is done under the shelter of Wilayah. Qutbul Aqtaab who is the greatest Qutb and the guide and mentor of others lies under his (Ali’s) feet. His orders are issued under the supervision and support of Ali and he performs his duties under the supervision and support of Ali and fulfills his tasks. Syeda Fatima and both of her sons, the Imams (Hasan and Hussein) share this rank with Ali (as).”
Maktubaat Imam Rabbani, Volume 1, page 438 Letter 251
In the original /Arabic wordings of Shaykh Sirhandi, ’Imam Ali’ has been used which was not likewise translated in the Urdu version.
Morever the same notion has been discussed in detail by Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi in his famed work Tauhfa Ashna Ashariya, page 339 40 (Thamar Hind, Lucknow).
We will end the topic by citing the comments of the beloved scholar of Salafies/Wahabies Ibn Tamiyah about the authorities of angels granted to pious people. In his comparison between human beings and angels he states:
They said: ‘The human scholars, with the existance of what is denied and opposition, are better. In this life and the hereafter they will be revered with praise, like they were made to breath. About the preceding benefit, and the benefit for creatures, and the direction of the universe, they have said: “They are the ones over whose hands the provision (Rizk) of creatures runs over, and they cascade science and revelations, and they preserve and hold other acts from the deeds of the angels.
And the answer is that the good people have what is like this and more …
Majmu’a Fatawa, Volume 4 page 379
- Defining the concept of Imamate
- The doctrine of Imamah from a Sunni perspective
- The Takwini and Tashri’i authorities of Prophets and Imams
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part I)
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part II)
- The Doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part III)
- The doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part IV)
- The Doctrine of Imamate from a Shi’a perspective (Part V)
- The doctrine of Imamate from the Qur’an
- Obeying the Ul’il Amr
- Nasibi objection at the false claimants of Imamate
- The Nasibi methodology of producing the Abdullah Ibn Saba card to negate the doctrine of Imamate
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