Chapter Three: The statements of Prophet(s), Sahabah, Tabayeen & Sunni scholars on the legitimacy of Taqiyyah

 

Taqiyyah is a part of the religion of Islam. Its order has been revealed in the Quran. The Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (s) has also testified to the legitimacy of Taqiyyah is Halal until the Day of Judgment. Imam Bukhari records in his Sahih:

The Statement of Allah:
“Anyone who after accepting faith in Allah utters unbelief except under compulsion his heart remaining firm in faith but such as open their breast to unbelief on them is Wrath from Allah and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty (16:106)]”

And this statement:

“Except if you are obliged to defend your self selves from them precautiously (3:28)” and this is Taqqiyah…
Allah excuses the weak who cannot refuse from leaving what Allah has enjoined on him. The coerced person cannot be but weak and unable to refuse to do what he is ordered to do.

Al-Hassan said: At-Taqiyyah (speaking against one’ own belief least his opponent put him in great danger) will remain till the day of Resurrection”
Sahih al-Bukhari [Arabic], Kitab al-Ikrah

In the commentary of Hassan Basri’s statement, Shaykh Abulhadi al-Sindi records:

قوله : (التقية إلى يوم القيامة) أي : ثابتة إلى يومها لا تختصّ بعهده صلى الله عليه وسلّم .

His statement (Taqiyyah will remain till the day of resurrection) means that it will reamain till that day and it is not only specified for His (s) era’
Hashiyat Al-Sindi, Volume 4 page 94

Imam Fakhruddin al-Razi whilst mentioning the situations under which Taqqiyah is permissible records:

التقية جائزة لصون النفس ، وهل هي جائزة لصون المال يحتمل أن يحكم فيها بالجواز

Taqiyyah is permissible for self protection, but is it permissible for the protection of wealth? It probably is permissible.
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 4 page 170

After recording the statement of Hasan Basri, Imam Fakhruddin al-Razi records:

عن الحسن : أنه قال التقية جائزة للمؤمنين إلى يوم القيامة ، وهذا القول أولى ، لأن دفع الضرر عن النفس واجب بقدر الإمكان .

“Taqiyyah is permissible until the day of Qayamah and this statement is better because it is Wajib to protect our life from any harm”
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 4 page 170

Let us now read the belief of an esteemed Tabayee and Sunni Imam namely Shu’bi (d. 103 H). Remember that when Shu’bi died, it was the reign of tyrant’s belonging to the Bani Ummayah. Imam Dhahabi in his authority work Siar alam al-Nubala, Volume 4 page 338 records about Sh’ubi:

قال سليمان التيمي : كان الشعبي يرى التقية

“Sulaiman al-Tamimi said that al-Sh’ubi believed in Taqyiah”
Siar alam al-Nubala, Volume 4 page 338

It is interesting to see that the present day Nawasib brand Taqiyyah as deception, whilst their own aqeedah is lying i.e. deception when necessary is not only allowed, but Wajib. Therefore, Imam Nawawi wrote:

وَقَدْ اِتَّفَقَ الْفُقَهَاء عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَوْ جَاءَ ظَالِم يَطْلُب إِنْسَانًا مُخْتَفِيًا لِيَقْتُلَهُ , أَوْ يَطْلُب وَدِيعَة لِإِنْسَانٍ لِيَأْخُذَهَا غَصْبًا , وَسَأَلَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ , وَجَبَ عَلَى مَنْ عَلِمَ ذَلِكَ إِخْفَاؤُهُ وَإِنْكَار الْعِلْم بِهِ , وَهَذَا كَذِب جَائِز , بَلْ وَاجِب لِكَوْنِهِ فِي دَفْع الظَّالِم

All the scholars agree on the fact that if a cruel man comes to kill a person who is hiding, or comes to wrongfully take someone else’s possessions, and asks for information about that (possession), then it is Wajib on everyone to conceal it and deny knowledge of its whereabouts. This is not only permissible but Wajib because its purpose is to protect an oppressed one from the grasp of an oppressor.
Sharh Muslim Nawawi, Volume 2, Page 106-266, Published Luknow

It is on account of such reasons, that scholars of the Ahle Sunnah have openly agreed on the logic behind Taqiyyah. In al-Nasa’ih al-Kaafiyah page 109, (Bombay edition), Sunni scholar Muhammad bin Aqeel Shaafi writes:

I say our scholars (Scholars of Ahle Sunnah) agree on the fact that when needed, telling a lie is allowed, and this is Taqiyyah. But if we name this Taqiyyah, a lot of the scholars raise an objection, since the Shi’a use this term. So the difference between Shi’a and Sunni is only a word difference.

Shaykh Ahmed Fehmi Mesri in “Hashia Al-Mihal wa Al-Nihal”, Volume 1, Page 195 (published in Cairo) wrote:

“Taqiyyah is allowed during times of fear, and Tabbara said that our companions say that in times of need, Taqiyyah is allowed; rather, in some cases to create an environment of unity, it can also be used. And all the narrations which are present speak for it.”

Darling of the Ahle Sunnah and leading opponent of the Shi’a, al Muhaddith Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi, despite his anti Shi’a views testified to the legitimacy of Taqiyyah:

It should be known that Taqiyyah is permissible, proven from the Qur’an one such verse is ,” Let not the believers take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah: except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah. ” and the other statement of Allah (swt):

“He who disbelieves in Allah after his having believed, not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens (his) breast to disbelief– on these is the wrath of Allah, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.”

The definition of Taqiyyah is to oppose one’s life, property or honor and this can be of two types. Firstly, the enmity may be based on religion of belief, like a Kaafir and Muslim. Secondly, it may be based on the worldly things, like property, place, women and other belongings. Thus, Taqqiyah is also of two kinds…”
Tauhfa Ithna Ashariyya, page 368

Imam Ibn Hayan Andlasi in his famed commentary of Holy Quran records:

وقال أصحاب أبي حنيفة التقية رخصة من الله تعالى

The companions of Abu Hanifa said: ‘Taqiyyah has been made lawful by Allah Almighty’
Al-Bahr al-Muheet, Volume 2 page 443

Abu Abdullah Mak-hool was among the prominent Sunni jurists from Syria. In Tabaqat al-Muhadatheen, Volume 4 page 176, we read the following statement of Mak-hool:

حدثنا محمد بن أحمد قال ثنا عبد الله بن عبد الوهاب قال ثنا أحمد بن الأزهر قال ثنا يزيد بن عبيد قال ثنا علي بن حوشب عن مكحول قال ذل من لا تقية له

“One that does not practice Taqiyyah shall suffer humiliation”

One of the beloved Imams of Salafies/Wahabies namely Ibn Qayim al-Jauziyah also stated:

إذا خافوا من شرهم فأباح لهم التقية

“If they fear oppression, it is permissible for them to practice Taqiyyah”
Badae al-Fawaed, Volume 3 page 575

Famed Ahle-Hadeeth scholar Maulana Waheed uz Zaman Khan records:

“Al-Taqiyyah also means that a man conceals his belief on account of a fear of losing his honor or life. This is permissible according to all, Ahle Sunnah and Imamiyah. It is in the Quran that ‘A believer, a man from among the people of Pharaoh, who had concealed his faith’ [40:28]’ and ‘except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them.’ [3:28].
And Ammar Yasir had practiced Taqiyyah and so did Muhamad bin Musalimah”

Lughaat al-Hadeeth, Alphabet ‘Tay’ page 17

Hamid Hanfni Dawoud wrote in Nadrat fi al-kutub al-Khalida, page 180:

 والتقية إنما تكون حين يستكره المسلم ليخلص من عدوه ومن هنا كانت التقية جزءا متفقا عليه في السلوك الإسلامي لا فرق بين سني وشيعي

“Taqqiyah shall performed when a Muslim is forced to get rid of his enemy, therefore Taqqiyah is a common Islamic act and there is no difference between Sunni or Shia in this”.

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba records the following words of Hassan bin Hassan bin Imam Hassan bin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (as) in his authority work Al-Musanaf, Volume 7 page 642:

حدثنا وكيع عن فضيل بن مرزوق عن الحسن بن الحسن قال إنما التقية رخصة

Wakee narrated from Fudail bin Marzouq from al-Hassan bin al-Hassan who said: ‘Taqqiyah is lawful’

Wakee bin al-Jarah: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p283). Fudail bin Marzouq: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p15).

We read in Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2 Hadith 634:

Narrated Marwan bin al-Hakam:
I saw ‘Uthman and ‘Ali. ‘Uthman used to forbid people to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ and Hajj-al-Qiran (Hajj and ‘Umra together), and when Ali saw (this act of ‘Uthman), he assumed Ihram for Hajj and ‘Umra together saying, “Lubbaik for ‘Umra and Hajj,” and said, “I will not leave the tradition of the Prophet on the saying of somebody.”

Imam Dhahabi in his explanation of this tradition records:

وفيه أن مذهب الإمام علي كان يرى مخالفة ولي الأمر لأجل متابعة السنة وهذا حسن لمن قوي ولم يؤذه إمامه فإن آذاه فله ترك السنة وليس له ترك الفرض إلا أن يخاف السيف

“This incident indicates that the madhab of Imam Ali was to oppose the Ulil Amr for adhering to the Sunnah. This act is sound for the one who has strength for this and there is no fear of harm for him on the part of the ruler, and if the rulers harms him, he can abandon the Sunnah but he is not allowed to abandon Fardh (obligations) except if he is afraid of (ruler’s) sword (then he can abandon the Fardh as well)”
Siyar Alam an-Nubla, Volume 21 pages 409-410

Let us cite a statement of famous companion Abu Darda recorded by Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Damishq, 47 page 175:

قال أبو الدرداء يا أهل دمشق لا يغرنكم ظرف الرجل ودهاؤه وفصاحته وإن كان مع ذلك قائم الليل صائم النهار إذا رأيتم فيه ثلاث خصال العجب وكثرة المنطق فيما لا يعنيه وأن يجد على الناس فيما يأتي مثله فإن ذلك علامة الجاهل وإن قيل إنه ظريف داهي لبيب فصيح عاقل ثم قال أبو الدرداء ألا أنبئكم بعلامة العاقل يتواضع لمن فوقه ولا يزري بمن دونه ويمسك الفضل من منطقه يخالق الناس بأخلاقهم ويحتجز الإيمان فيما بينه وبين ربه جل وعز وهو يمشي في الدنيا بالتقية

Abu Darda said: ‘Oh people of Damascus do not be fascinated by a man who is cunning and eloquent even if alongside these attributes he spends his night praying and his day fasting. If you find the following three characters in his personality which are arrogance, interfering in other peoples affairs and finding faults in others that he is himself guilty of, then beware as these are the characters are of ignorance, even if he was described as well mannered, calculating, thoughtful, articulate and rational’. Then Abu Darda said: ‘Shall I tell you the signs of a modest and humble man. The three signs of a modest man are his humbleness to those above him, he does not look down on those below him, he possesses good judgment and reason, he treats people as they would wish to be treated, he keeps his faith between himself and his Creator (swt) and adopts Taqiyyah’.

Last but certainly not the least, we read in the esteemed Sunni work Kanz al Ummal:

Narrated Ali: Prophet (s) said: “One who does not practice Taqqiyah has no religion.’
Kanz al Ummal, Volume 3 page 96 Tradition 5665

Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti has also recorded this in his authority work:
Jam’e al-Saghir, Volume 8 page 281 Hadith 26050

Hanafi Fatwa, at the time of danger, one can swear at Rasulullah (s) – (naudobillah)

One should point out that the Ahle Sunnah’s very own aqeedah is that when one is being threatened, he can swear at Rasulullah (s) (naudobillah). We cite a text from the book of an esteemed Sunni Shaykh Ishaq bin Ibrahim al-Shashi (d. 325 H) that is still read as part of the curriculum in Deobandi schools, namely Usool Al-Shashi, page 242:

وذلك نحو اجراء كلمة الكفر على اللسان مع اطمئنان القلب عند الاكراه وسب النبي عليه السلام وإتلاف مال المسلم وقتل النفس ظلما

“When one is under duress, it is permissible for him to recite the Kalima of Kufr, swear at Rasulullah (s), destroy property of a Muslim and kill innocent person provided that the heart is at comfort.”
Usool Al-Shashi, page 242  

We should also point out that Sunni scholar Abu Shakoor Saalmi in al-Tamheed fi Bayan al-Tauwheed, Chapter 1 pages 18 & 19 (Delhi) states:

“Similarly, Kufr is the worst act. But when one is forced to commit it through a threat of murder then it is permissible to adopt Taqiyyah and recite the Kalima of kufr; and such a person should NOT be deemed a Kaffir. Verily, the Shari’a has deemed it a favorable act to recite Kalima of Kufr under Taqqiyah”.

 

The Khawarij are the only cult that reject Taqiyyah

The Nasibi website, whilst defining Taqiyyah as ‘calculated deception’ and rejecting its as an act of hypocrisy, should know that they have in fact exposed their ‘actual’ beliefs. The fact of the matter is in Islam all sects agree that Taqiyyah is a legitimate practice except the Khawarij.

Imam of Ahle Sunnah, Ibn Asakir discusses the beliefs of the Khawarij in Tahdeeb Volume 4 page 147, whilst commenting on the life of Hasan bin Farokh. He states:

“The fourth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they consider it permissible to kill their enemies women and children…the sixth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they deem practicing Taqiyyah to be unlawful either verbally or practically”.

Meer Shareef Jarjani in Sharh Mawaqif, page 757 whilst setting out the beliefs of the Khawarij states:

The Khawarij say that it is Haram to practice Taqiyyah either verbally or practically and deem it permissible to kill their opponents.

Similarly Abdul Kareem Shahrastani in his famous text ‘al Mihal wa al Nahal’ Volume 1 page 122, whilst setting out the views of the Khawarij, states:

والسادسة‏:‏ ان التقية غير جائزة في قول ولا عمل

“The sixth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they consider the act of Taqiyyah to be unlawful either verbally or practically”.

We would like to make it clear that both Shi’a and Ahle Sunnah believe in the legitimacy of Taqiyyah and the only group that deny it and deem it ‘calculated deception’ are the Khawarij and Nawasib, who also deem shedding the blood of their opponents to be an act for which they shall be rewarded. So all those, who are agasint the Islamic concept of Taqqiyah definitely have some ties with Khawarij, either spiritually or through their illegitimate lineage.

 

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