Chapter Three: The statements of Prophet(s), Sahabah, Tabayeen & Sunni scholars on the legitimacy of Taqiyyah
Taqiyyah is a part of the religion of Islam. Its order has been revealed in the Quran. The Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (s) has also testified to the legitimacy of Taqiyyah is Halal until the Day of Judgment. Imam Bukhari records in his Sahih:
The Statement of Allah:
“Anyone who after accepting faith in Allah utters unbelief except under compulsion his heart remaining firm in faith but such as open their breast to unbelief on them is Wrath from Allah and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty (16:106)]”
And this statement:
“Except if you are obliged to defend your self selves from them precautiously (3:28)” and this is Taqqiyah…
Allah excuses the weak who cannot refuse from leaving what Allah has enjoined on him. The coerced person cannot be but weak and unable to refuse to do what he is ordered to do.
Al-Hassan said: At-Taqiyyah (speaking against one’ own belief least his opponent put him in great danger) will remain till the day of Resurrection”
Sahih al-Bukhari [Arabic], Kitab al-Ikrah
In the commentary of Hassan Basri’s statement, Shaykh Abulhadi al-Sindi records:
His statement (Taqiyyah will remain till the day of resurrection) means that it will reamain till that day and it is not only specified for His (s) era’
Hashiyat Al-Sindi, Volume 4 page 94
Imam Fakhruddin al-Razi whilst mentioning the situations under which Taqqiyah is permissible records:
Taqiyyah is permissible for self protection, but is it permissible for the protection of wealth? It probably is permissible.
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 4 page 170
After recording the statement of Hasan Basri, Imam Fakhruddin al-Razi records:
“Taqiyyah is permissible until the day of Qayamah and this statement is better because it is Wajib to protect our life from any harm”
Tafseer Kabeer, Volume 4 page 170
Let us now read the belief of an esteemed Tabayee and Sunni Imam namely Shu’bi (d. 103 H). Remember that when Shu’bi died, it was the reign of tyrant’s belonging to the Bani Ummayah. Imam Dhahabi in his authority work Siar alam al-Nubala, Volume 4 page 338 records about Sh’ubi:
“Sulaiman al-Tamimi said that al-Sh’ubi believed in Taqyiah”
Siar alam al-Nubala, Volume 4 page 338
It is interesting to see that the present day Nawasib brand Taqiyyah as deception, whilst their own aqeedah is lying i.e. deception when necessary is not only allowed, but Wajib. Therefore, Imam Nawawi wrote:
All the scholars agree on the fact that if a cruel man comes to kill a person who is hiding, or comes to wrongfully take someone else’s possessions, and asks for information about that (possession), then it is Wajib on everyone to conceal it and deny knowledge of its whereabouts. This is not only permissible but Wajib because its purpose is to protect an oppressed one from the grasp of an oppressor.
Sharh Muslim Nawawi, Volume 2, Page 106-266, Published Luknow
It is on account of such reasons, that scholars of the Ahle Sunnah have openly agreed on the logic behind Taqiyyah. In al-Nasa’ih al-Kaafiyah page 109, (Bombay edition), Sunni scholar Muhammad bin Aqeel Shaafi writes:
I say our scholars (Scholars of Ahle Sunnah) agree on the fact that when needed, telling a lie is allowed, and this is Taqiyyah. But if we name this Taqiyyah, a lot of the scholars raise an objection, since the Shi’a use this term. So the difference between Shi’a and Sunni is only a word difference.
Shaykh Ahmed Fehmi Mesri in “Hashia Al-Mihal wa Al-Nihal”, Volume 1, Page 195 (published in Cairo) wrote:
“Taqiyyah is allowed during times of fear, and Tabbara said that our companions say that in times of need, Taqiyyah is allowed; rather, in some cases to create an environment of unity, it can also be used. And all the narrations which are present speak for it.”
Darling of the Ahle Sunnah and leading opponent of the Shi’a, al Muhaddith Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi, despite his anti Shi’a views testified to the legitimacy of Taqiyyah:
It should be known that Taqiyyah is permissible, proven from the Qur’an one such verse is ,” Let not the believers take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah: except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah. ” and the other statement of Allah (swt):
“He who disbelieves in Allah after his having believed, not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens (his) breast to disbelief– on these is the wrath of Allah, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.”
The definition of Taqiyyah is to oppose one’s life, property or honor and this can be of two types. Firstly, the enmity may be based on religion of belief, like a Kaafir and Muslim. Secondly, it may be based on the worldly things, like property, place, women and other belongings. Thus, Taqqiyah is also of two kinds…”
Tauhfa Ithna Ashariyya, page 368
Imam Ibn Hayan Andlasi in his famed commentary of Holy Quran records:
The companions of Abu Hanifa said: ‘Taqiyyah has been made lawful by Allah Almighty’
Al-Bahr al-Muheet, Volume 2 page 443
Abu Abdullah Mak-hool was among the prominent Sunni jurists from Syria. In Tabaqat al-Muhadatheen, Volume 4 page 176, we read the following statement of Mak-hool:
“One that does not practice Taqiyyah shall suffer humiliation”
One of the beloved Imams of Salafies/Wahabies namely Ibn Qayim al-Jauziyah also stated:
“If they fear oppression, it is permissible for them to practice Taqiyyah”
Badae al-Fawaed, Volume 3 page 575
Famed Ahle-Hadeeth scholar Maulana Waheed uz Zaman Khan records:
“Al-Taqiyyah also means that a man conceals his belief on account of a fear of losing his honor or life. This is permissible according to all, Ahle Sunnah and Imamiyah. It is in the Quran that ‘A believer, a man from among the people of Pharaoh, who had concealed his faith’ [40:28]’ and ‘except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them.’ [3:28].
And Ammar Yasir had practiced Taqiyyah and so did Muhamad bin Musalimah”
Lughaat al-Hadeeth, Alphabet ‘Tay’ page 17
Hamid Hanfni Dawoud wrote in Nadrat fi al-kutub al-Khalida, page 180:
والتقية إنما تكون حين يستكره المسلم ليخلص من عدوه ومن هنا كانت التقية جزءا متفقا عليه في السلوك الإسلامي لا فرق بين سني وشيعي
“Taqqiyah shall performed when a Muslim is forced to get rid of his enemy, therefore Taqqiyah is a common Islamic act and there is no difference between Sunni or Shia in this”.
Imam Ibn Abi Shayba records the following words of Hassan bin Hassan bin Imam Hassan bin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (as) in his authority work Al-Musanaf, Volume 7 page 642:
Wakee narrated from Fudail bin Marzouq from al-Hassan bin al-Hassan who said: ‘Taqqiyah is lawful’
Wakee bin al-Jarah: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p283). Fudail bin Marzouq: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p15).
We read in Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2 Hadith 634:
Narrated Marwan bin al-Hakam:
I saw ‘Uthman and ‘Ali. ‘Uthman used to forbid people to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ and Hajj-al-Qiran (Hajj and ‘Umra together), and when Ali saw (this act of ‘Uthman), he assumed Ihram for Hajj and ‘Umra together saying, “Lubbaik for ‘Umra and Hajj,” and said, “I will not leave the tradition of the Prophet on the saying of somebody.”
Imam Dhahabi in his explanation of this tradition records:
“This incident indicates that the madhab of Imam Ali was to oppose the Ulil Amr for adhering to the Sunnah. This act is sound for the one who has strength for this and there is no fear of harm for him on the part of the ruler, and if the rulers harms him, he can abandon the Sunnah but he is not allowed to abandon Fardh (obligations) except if he is afraid of (ruler’s) sword (then he can abandon the Fardh as well)”
Siyar Alam an-Nubla, Volume 21 pages 409-410
Let us cite a statement of famous companion Abu Darda recorded by Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Damishq, 47 page 175:
Abu Darda said: ‘Oh people of Damascus do not be fascinated by a man who is cunning and eloquent even if alongside these attributes he spends his night praying and his day fasting. If you find the following three characters in his personality which are arrogance, interfering in other peoples affairs and finding faults in others that he is himself guilty of, then beware as these are the characters are of ignorance, even if he was described as well mannered, calculating, thoughtful, articulate and rational’. Then Abu Darda said: ‘Shall I tell you the signs of a modest and humble man. The three signs of a modest man are his humbleness to those above him, he does not look down on those below him, he possesses good judgment and reason, he treats people as they would wish to be treated, he keeps his faith between himself and his Creator (swt) and adopts Taqiyyah’.
Last but certainly not the least, we read in the esteemed Sunni work Kanz al Ummal:
Narrated Ali: Prophet (s) said: “One who does not practice Taqqiyah has no religion.’
Kanz al Ummal, Volume 3 page 96 Tradition 5665
Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti has also recorded this in his authority work:
Jam’e al-Saghir, Volume 8 page 281 Hadith 26050
Hanafi Fatwa, at the time of danger, one can swear at Rasulullah (s) – (naudobillah)
One should point out that the Ahle Sunnah’s very own aqeedah is that when one is being threatened, he can swear at Rasulullah (s) (naudobillah). We cite a text from the book of an esteemed Sunni Shaykh Ishaq bin Ibrahim al-Shashi (d. 325 H) that is still read as part of the curriculum in Deobandi schools, namely Usool Al-Shashi, page 242:
وذلك نحو اجراء كلمة الكفر على اللسان مع اطمئنان القلب عند الاكراه وسب النبي عليه السلام وإتلاف مال المسلم وقتل النفس ظلما
“When one is under duress, it is permissible for him to recite the Kalima of Kufr, swear at Rasulullah (s), destroy property of a Muslim and kill innocent person provided that the heart is at comfort.”
Usool Al-Shashi, page 242
We should also point out that Sunni scholar Abu Shakoor Saalmi in al-Tamheed fi Bayan al-Tauwheed, Chapter 1 pages 18 & 19 (Delhi) states:
“Similarly, Kufr is the worst act. But when one is forced to commit it through a threat of murder then it is permissible to adopt Taqiyyah and recite the Kalima of kufr; and such a person should NOT be deemed a Kaffir. Verily, the Shari’a has deemed it a favorable act to recite Kalima of Kufr under Taqqiyah”.
The Khawarij are the only cult that reject Taqiyyah
The Nasibi website, whilst defining Taqiyyah as ‘calculated deception’ and rejecting its as an act of hypocrisy, should know that they have in fact exposed their ‘actual’ beliefs. The fact of the matter is in Islam all sects agree that Taqiyyah is a legitimate practice except the Khawarij.
Imam of Ahle Sunnah, Ibn Asakir discusses the beliefs of the Khawarij in Tahdeeb Volume 4 page 147, whilst commenting on the life of Hasan bin Farokh. He states:
“The fourth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they consider it permissible to kill their enemies women and children…the sixth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they deem practicing Taqiyyah to be unlawful either verbally or practically”.
Meer Shareef Jarjani in Sharh Mawaqif, page 757 whilst setting out the beliefs of the Khawarij states:
The Khawarij say that it is Haram to practice Taqiyyah either verbally or practically and deem it permissible to kill their opponents.
Similarly Abdul Kareem Shahrastani in his famous text ‘al Mihal wa al Nahal’ Volume 1 page 122, whilst setting out the views of the Khawarij, states:
“The sixth characteristic of the Khawarij is that they consider the act of Taqiyyah to be unlawful either verbally or practically”.
We would like to make it clear that both Shi’a and Ahle Sunnah believe in the legitimacy of Taqiyyah and the only group that deny it and deem it ‘calculated deception’ are the Khawarij and Nawasib, who also deem shedding the blood of their opponents to be an act for which they shall be rewarded. So all those, who are agasint the Islamic concept of Taqqiyah definitely have some ties with Khawarij, either spiritually or through their illegitimate lineage.
- Definition of Taqiyyah
- Taqiyyah proven from Quran
- The statements of Prophet(s), Sahabah, Tabayeen & Sunni scholars on the legitimacy of Taqiyyah
- Nasibi criticisms of Taqiyyah
- Innovations in Taqiyyah introduced by Ibn Taymiyah
- Innovations in Taqiyyah introduced by Mufti Khalid Mahmood
- Nasibi criticism leveled at Maula Ali (as) for adopting Taqiyyah
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