Chapter Three: Identifying Uthman’s killers


So far we have proved that the stories relating to Ibn Saba killing Uthman have been fabricated for the purpose of veilng the actual Sahaba that killed Uthman. We shall now proceed to give details of each and every individual who played a lead role in the agitation against Uthman that lead to his murder.

Abu Sulaiman’s denial about Sahaba’s role in agitation and the murder of Uthman

It is indeed amusing that Abu Sulaiman had claimed in his opening defence of Uthman:

Ansar.Org stated:

Every sane man would have no doubts that the killers of Uthman were not the Companions. The Companions, may Allah be pleased at them, did not participate in this murder, nor did they approve of it. On the contrary, the Companions defended him and stood by Uthman’s side.

Reply One

If this was indeed true then it would mean that ALL the Sahaba stood shoulder to shoulder protecting Uthman from the ‘Sabaies’ and Egyptians. This would pinpoint the presence of hundreds of thousands of Sahaba protecting Uthman. This being the case how is it that a group of rebels were able to penetrate through these minions of loyal defenders and kill the Khalifa? If we are to accept the traditions that Abu Sulaiman had cited not more than 5 individuals are mentioned, clearly this does not constitute all the Sahaba so where were they? Why were they not defending Uthman as Abu Sulaiman claims? The answer is that companions were themselves involved in the agitation and murder of Uthman whether that involved participating with Egyptian forces or in local groups.

The fact of the matter is no people’s revolution to oust the head of state can occur until the grass root support of the local population living in the administrative capital takes place.  In the case of Uthman the capital was Madina, he ruled from that city, any movement to oust him would thus not have been successful if the support of the people of Madina had not been fully secured, had this not been the case then there would have been a civil war between the supporters of Uthman and his opponents in Madina.  The fact of the matter is this simply did not happen, due to the fact that those that opposed him including the people of Madina themselves who were clearly sympathetic to the grievances of those that had come from other provinces.  In this regard we read in As-Sunnah al-Khilal, Hadith 412:

أخبرنا أخبرنا عبد الله بن أحمد ، قال : حدثني أبي قال : قال سفيان : ” أهل المدينة لما وثبوا على عثمان فقتلوه ، قال لهم سعد : أمعاوية خير عندكم من عثمان ؟ قالوا : لا ، بل عثمان ، قال : فلا تقتلوه ، قالوا : نكله إلى الله ، قال : كذبة والله ” .

Sufyan said : ‘When the people of Madina assaulted and killed Uthman, Saad said to them: ‘Is Muawyia better than Uthman in your opinion?’ They replied:’ No, Uthman is better’. He (Saad) said: ‘Then don’t kill .him’. They replied: ‘We will let him in God’s custody’. He said: ‘By God it’s a lie’.’

As we can see from this narration Sufyan was testifying to the fact that the people of Madina were responsible for attacking and killing Uthman, that in itself refutes the notion that Uthman was killed by Sabaites that hailed from the provinces of Egypt. Whilst Saad was expressing his opposition to the murder of Uthman we will evidence later on that he played a role in the agitation against Uthman that contributed to his downfall.

Reply Two

Imam Ayji testifies in his famed work Al-Mawaqif, Volume 3 page 642 that the murder of Uthman involved the companions and this fact is Mutawatir (with successive chains of narrations):

وأما الفتن والحروب الواقعة بين الصحابة فالهشامية أنكروا وقوعها ولا شك أنه مكابرة للتواتر في قتل عثمان ووقعة الجمل وصفين

“About the sedition (fitna) and wars which took place among the companions, the Hyshamya (sect) deny it, and no doubt that they (the deniers) do prevaricate because about the murder of Uthman, the battles of Jamal and Sefeen, it is Mutawatir”

And what more relevant testimony can there be other than of the victim himself? The ‘companions of Prophet (s)’ who the Nasibi author claims were then the ‘companions of Uthman’ were in his opinion his enemies. Ibn Katheer records the following incident in Al Bidayah Wal Nihayah (Urdu), Vol 7 page 353 (published by Nafees Academy, Karachi) or in Volume 7 page 202 of the Arabic version:

قال الإمام أحمد حدثنا إسحاق بن سليمان سمعت معاوية بن سلم أن سلمة يذكر عن مطرف عن نافع عن ابن عمر أن عثمان أشرف على أصحابه وهو محصور فقال على م تقتلونني؟ فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول لا يحل دم امرئ إلا بإحدى ثلاث رجل زنى بعد احصانه فعليه الرجم أو قتل عمدا فعليه القود أو ارتد بعد اسلامه فعليه القتل فوالله ما زنيت في جاهلية ولا اسلام ولا قتلت أحداً فأقيد نفسي منه ولا ارتددت منذ أسلمت إني أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمداً عبده ورسوله . ورواه النسائي عن أحمد بن الأزهر عن إسحاق بن سليمان به.

“Imam Ahmed stated: Ishaq bin Sulaiman told us that he heard Muawiyah bin Aslam that Salmah narrated from Mutraf from Nafi’e from Ibn Umair that Uthman during his siege looked at his companions and said: ‘Why do you people want to kill me? I have heard Holy Prophet (s) that the blood of a person becomes Halal only in three conditions i.e. if he committed adultery after marriage, such a man should be stoned to death, or someone deliberately killed another person, his punishment is death or if someone becomes apostate, his punishment is death as well. By Allah! I neither committed adultery during the days of ignorance nor during the days of Islam, nor have I killed someone that I may give Qasas via my life, also I didn’t become apostate after becoming Muslim. I testify that there is no God except Allah and Muhammad is His prophet and Messenger’. Nasai has narrated it Ahmed bin Al-Azahar from Ishaq bin Sulaiman.”
This tradition is recoreded in Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Volume 1 page 63 No. 452 while the margin writers of the book such as Shaykh Shu’aib al-Arnaout declared it ‘Hasan’ and Shaykh Ahmad Shakir declared it ‘Sahih’  in his version of Musnad Ahmad, Volume 2 page 358.

On the next page we find a similar tradition recorded by Ibn Katheer which begins in this manner:

قال الإمام أحمد حدثنا قطن ثنا يونس -يعني ابن ابي اسحاق- عن أبيه عن أبي سلمة بن عبدالرحمن قال أشرف عثمان من القصر وهو محصور فقال انشد بالله من شهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم حراء إذ أهتز الجبل فركله بقدمه….

“Imam Ahmed stated: ‘Qatan told us Yunus (Ibn Abi Ishaq) narrated from his father that he heard Abu Salmah bin Abdulrehman that Uthman during his siege looked outside his palace and stated: ‘In the name of Allah I make an appeal to the person who saw the Holy Prophet on the day of Hira, when mountain shook, He (s) struck his foot on it…’”
This tradition has been declared ‘Sahih’ by both Shaykh Shu’aib al-Arnaout (Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Volume 1 page 59 No. 420 )and Shaykh Ahmad Shakir (Musnad Ahmad, v2 p343).

The statement of Uthman makes it clear that the people who had beseiged him and wanted to murder him were companions of the Holy Prophet (s), which is why he appealed directly to those individuals and reminded them to testify that they had seen the incident of Hira at the time of Holy Prophet (s). That is why Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Uthman’s biography testified:

وجاء من طرق كثيرة شهيرة صحيحة عن عثمان لما أن أحصروه أنتشد الصحابة في أشياء

“It has been narrated with different renowned and Sahih chains that when Uthman was besieged, he beseeched the Sahabah for various things”
 Al-Isaba, Volume 4 page 378 Translation No. 5452

When one wishes to resolve hostilities with an opponent, he will beseech that person, so that the matter can be amicably resolved. You beseech with those that you are in dispute. Uthman was likewise pleading with the Sahaba that he was in direct conflict with, Sahaba that would ultimately shed his blood.

We read in Kanz al Ummal, Volume 13 page 82:

“When the Egyptian forces landed at Jahafa and began to talk ill of Uthman, he got to know about it and climbed on the pulpit and said, “O Sahaba of Prophet Muhammad (s), May Allah curse you for bad mouthing me. You advertised my shortcomings and concealed my virtues. You have also provoked people against me.
 Kanz al Ummal, Volume 13 page 82 Tradition 36293

Reply Three

At this point we have cited light proofs for the involvement of the Sahabah in the agitation and murder of Uthman. We shall now cite an array of evidences about each and every Sahabi involved in the agitation and murder of Uthman. Once we have submitted such evidence, readers shall have no doubt about the role of the Sahabah in the murder of 3rd caliph of Ahle Sunnah.

One: Aisha’s lead role in killing Uthman

Many of the books of Ahle Sunnah record that Aisha had declared Uthman a Nathal that should be killed. Amongst those texts are the following:

  1. Al Nahaya, Volume 5 page 80
  2. Qamus, page 500 “lughut Nathal” by Firozabadi
  3. Lisan al Arab, Volume 11 Chapter “Lughuth Nathal” page 670
  4. Sharh Nahjul Balagha Ibn al Hadeed Volume 2 page 122
  5. Sheikh al-Mudhira, by Mahmoud Abu Raya, page 170 (foot note)
  6. Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa, Volume 1 page 52
  7. Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Duwal, by Ibn Al-Ebrei, vol 1 page 55
  8. Al-Mahsol, by al-Razi, volume 4 page 343
  9. Tajareb al-Ummam, volume 1 page 419

Ibn Qutayba in his book Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa records:

Abdullah bin Muslim (ibn Qutayba) from Ibn Abi Maryam and Ibn Ufair – from Ibn Uon – from Mukhol bin Ibrahim and Abu Hamza al-Thumali – from Ali bin al-Hussain who said: ‘… then Ubaid said to her: ‘The first one to incite the people against him was you, and you used to say, ‘kill this Nathal because he has become dissolute.’’’

Ibn Atheer in ‘Al-Nahayah’, Volume 5 page 80 stated:

حديث “اقتلوا نعثلا قتل الله نعثلا” تعني عثمان . وهذا كان منها لما غاضبته وذهبت إلى مكة

The hadith “kill Nathal, may Allah kill Nathal” refers to Uthman. That happened from her when she got angry and went to Makka.

We see that Ibn Atheer who is one of the esteemed Sunni scholars accepted the tradition and hence gave his defense for Aisha i.e. she was in state of anger whilst giving this edict against Uthman!

Al-Razi records in Al-Mahsol, Volume 4 page 343:

فكانت عائشة رضي الله عنها تحرض عليه جهدها وطاقتها وتقول أيها الناس هذا قميص رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يبل وقد بليت سنته اقتلوا نعثلا قتل الله نعثلا

Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) did her best to incite people against Uthman, and she used to say: ‘Oh people! This is the cloth of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) still not ragged, while his Sunnah is ragged, kill Nathal, may Allah kill Nathal.’

Abul Faraj Ibn al-Ebri records:

ولقد كنت تقولين: اقتلوا نعثلا فقد كفر.

“You used to say: ‘Kill Nathal, verily he has become kafir’”
 Tarikh Mukhtasar al-Duwal, Volume 1 page 55

Renowned is historian and philosopher Ahmad bin Yaqoob Maskuweh (d. 421 A.H) wrote in his book  Tajareb al-Ummam, volume 1 page 419:

و كانت من قبل تشنّع على عثمان، و تحضّ عليه، و تخرج راكبة بغلة رسول الله- صلى الله عليه- و معها قميصه و تقول: – «هذا قميص رسول الله، صلى الله عليه، ما بلى و قد بلى دينه، اقتلوا نعثلا، قتل الله نعثلا.»

 She used to defame Uthman and instigate against him, she used to roam on Allah’s Apostle’s mule holding a cloth and saying: ‘This is Allah’s Apostle’s cloth, it’s not ragged yet while his religion has become ragged, Kill Na’thal, may Allah kill Na’thal’. 

Interestingly Abu Sulaiman seeks to deny that Aisha had ever used such language against Uthman by deviously quoting as follows:

This story was narrated by Nasr bin Muzahim. Al-Aqeeli says about Nasr bin Muzahim, “He tends to be a Shi’a, and his narrations are filled with confusions and mistakes.” [Al-Du’afa by Al-Aqeeli, vol.4, p.300, #. 1899]. Al-Thahabi says about him, “A hardcore Rafidhi (Shi’a), and his narrations are not taken as authentic. Abu Khaythamah said, ‘He was a liar.’ Abu Hatim said, ‘Weak narrator, and is not taken as an argument.’ Al-Darqutni said, ‘His narrations are weak.’ ” [Al-Mizan by Al-Thahabi, vol.4, p.253, #. 9046]. “Al-Jowzani said, ‘Nasr was a fake person and far away from truth.’ Salih bin Muhamed said, ‘Nasr bin Muzahim narrated ugly stories from unreliable narrators.’ Al-Hafudh Abi Al-Fath Muhamed bin Al-Hussain said, ‘Nasr bin Muzahim goes excess in his denomination.’” [Tareekh Baghdad by Al-Baghdadi, vol.13, p.283].

We should point out that Abu Sulaiman fails to cite WHICH TEXT contains the name of Nasr bin Muzahim! Aisha’s takfeer against Uthman is not just restricted to Nasr bin Muzahim, the classical Sunni scholars who have narrated from various chains! The incident of Aisha calling Uthman as Nathal can be corroborated by the fact that Sahabah themselves reminded Aisha of her takfeer against Uthman and such individuals include Ali bin Abi Talib (as) (Seerat al-Halabiyah) and Ubaid bin Abi Salmah (Tarikh Kamil). Aisha’s takfeer against Uthman had become so popular that common people likewise started to call Uthman as Nathal and such individuals include Jahja Ghaffari (Al-Bidayah), Jabla bin Umro Al-Sa’adi (Al-Bidayah), Ayun Iibn Emra al-Farazdaq (Majm’a al-Zawaed) and common people of Madina (Tarikh Tabari). We shall cite some of these incidents in detail later on.

Aisha’s opposition against Uthman during his life

Abu Sulaiman tries to negate Aisha’s opposition to Uthman by citing the following texts

True and authentic stories show that Aisha was in pain for the murder of Uthman and she also prayed against his killers. Masrooq – a trustworthy Tabi’ei – said that Aisha said, “You left him (to die) just like the dirt-clear cloth, and you came closer to kill him as a sheep is slaughtered.” Then Masrooq told her, “This is the result of your work. You encouraged people to rebel against him.” Aisha answered, “By the One who believers believe in and the disbelievers disbelieve in, I did not write them a single word.” Al-A’amash said, “It is to be known that words were written in her name (and she did not know about it).” [Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah, by Ibn Katheer, vol. 7, p. 204, with authentic chain of narrators]. Ahmed narrates that Aisha said (regarding the murder of Uthman ), “I wish I was forgotten. And about what happened to Uthman , by Allah, I never wanted anything bad to happen to him unless it happened to me too. So if I wanted him to be killed, then I shall be killed too.” [Virtues of the Companions, by Ahmed, vol. 1, p. 462, with authentic chain of narrators]. Talaq bin Hushan asked Aisha, “How was Uthman , the Commander of the Faithful, killed?” Aisha answered, “He was killed as an innocent man. May Allah curse his killers.” [Al-Tareekh Al-Kabeer by Al-Bukhari, vol. 4, p. 358]

We are not interested in Aisha’s alleged claims of denials AFTER the event – what is important is to see the position that she had taken whilst Uthman was alive.

Basically, Aisha wanted to remove Uthman and slot her relative Talha at the post of caliphate. Her endeavor against Uthman worked but the people chosing Ali bin Abi Talib (as) watered down her motive of installing Talha at the position of caliphate, which made her to do some modification in the game plan and the very Uthman who had been an oppressor in her eyes, suddenly became oppressed after she heard the news that people had gone to Ali bin Abi Talib (as) instead of Talha. Aisha’s new position towards Uthman was NOT based on her pain towards the slain / innocent Khalifa. It was due to her hatred of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (as). Aisha had NOT envisaged that Uthman would be succeeded by Ali bin Abi Talib (as) and hence had no hesitation in inciting people against him. al-Baladhuri in his famed book Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 pages 192-193 records that:

When the situation became extremely grave, Uthman ordered Marwan Ibn al-Hakam and Abdurahman Ibn Attab Ibn Usayd to try to persuade Aisha to stop campaigning against him. They went to her while she was preparing to leave for pilgrimage, and they told her: “We pray that you stay in Medina, and that Allah may save this man (Uthman ) through you.” Aisha said: “I have prepared my means of transportation and vowed to perform the pilgrimage. By God, I shall not honor your request… I wish he (Uthman ) was in one of my sacks so that I could carry him. I would then throw him into the sea.”
 Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 pages 192-193

It is clear that Uthman deemed Aisha as a key figure in the opposition to Uthman which is why we had wanted Marwan to approach her and stop her acts of incitement. If Aisha was innocent of the charges then why did she want to throw Uthman into the sea?

As we stated earlier, her long-term plan was to have her relative Talha succeed Uthman after his death. Tabari records that whilst Uthman was besieged when Ibn Abbas met Aisha as she was making her way to perform Hajj. Aisha wanted Ibn Abbas to turn against Uthman and she appealed to him stating:

According to Muhammad (Al-Waqidi) – Ibn Abi Sabrah – Abd al-Majid bin Suhayl – Ikramah: “Ibn Abbas, I entreat you by God: abandon this man, sow doubt about him among the people, for you have been given a sharp tongue. Their powers of discernment have been clarified, the beacon light is raised high to guide them, and (the Caliph’s associates) have milked the lands that once abounded in good things. I have seen Talha b. Ubaydullah take possession of the keys to the public treasuries and storehouses. If he becomes Caliph, he will follow in the path of his paternal cousin Abu Bakr”.

According to (Ibn Abbas): I said, “O Mother (of the Believers), if some evil were to befall that man [namely Uthman], the people would seek asylum only in with our companion [namely, ‘‘Ali]. She replied, “Be quiet! I have no desire to defy or quarrel with you”.
History of Tabari [English translation] Volume 15 pages 289-239

Baladhuri records:

Aysha was inciting people against Uthman, when she was informed about his murder while she was in Makka, she spoke in the Shrine (Makka) and said: ‘I believe that Uthman shall bring ill luck on his people (Ummayads) just as Abu Sufyan brought ill luck on his people (disbelievers) on the Day of Badr’.
 Ansab al Ashraf, Volume 6 page 212

Aisha’s actions against Uthman were as follows:

  1. She incited people by declaring Uthman to be a kaafir who should be killed.
  2. When the rebels closed in on Uthman, she left for the Hajj and refused to intervene and save Uthman’s life.
  3. She encouraged Ibn Abbas to move against Uthman , and made it clear that Talha would be a worthy successor when Uthman dies.
  4. When Uthman died Aisha said Uthman brought bad luck to the Banu Ummayya.

Whilst Uthman was alive, Aisha was his bitter opponent; she wanted people to overthrow him and indicated to Ibn Abbas that Talha was the man who could lead the people after Uthman. The indication that Ali bin Abi Talib (as) would succeed had clearly angered Aisha who brought the conversation to an abrupt end.

Sahaba and Tabayeen had highlighted Aisha’s shift in policy on Uthman

The change in circumstances in Aisha’s portrayal of Uthman from a kaafir to victim occurred when Imam Ali bin Abi Talib (as) had attained power. Her new policy of regret had not gone unnoticed and she may well have denied this later, but the fact is the Sahaba were fully aware that Aisha WAS responsible for Uthman’s killing and they pointed this out to her.

In Tareekh Kamil Volume 3 page 100 Ibn Atheer records that:

“Ubayd bin Abi Salma who was a maternal relative of Aisha met her as she was making her way to Madina. Ubayd said “Uthman has been killed and the people were without an Imam for eight days” to which Aisha asked “What did they do next?”. Ubayd said “The people approached ‘‘Ali and gave him bayya”. Aisha then said ‘Take me back! Take me back to Makka”. She then turned her face towards Makka and said, ‘Verily Uthman was murdered innocently, and By Allah, I shall avenge his blood’. Ubayd then said ‘You are now calling Uthman innocent, even though it was you who said ‘Kill Nathal, this Jew”.

Imam ‘Ali (as) wrote a letter to Aisha in which He (as) had openly questioned Aisha’s motives, as recorded in Seerat al Halabiyah (Urdu), Volume 2 part 2 page 437:

“You have acted in opposition to Allah (swt) and his Rasul (s) by leaving your home, you have made demands for those things that you have no right. You claim to wish to reform the Ummah, tell me, what role do women have in reforming the Ummah and participating in battles? You claim that you wish to avenge Uthman ‘s murder despite the fact that he is a man from Banu Ummayya and you are a woman from Banu Taym. If we look in to the matter it was only yesterday that you had said ‘Kill Nathal May Allah (swt) kill him because he has become a kaafir”.
 Seerat al Halabiyah (Urdu), Volume 2 part 2 page 437, translation by Deobandi scholar Maulana Muhammad Aslam Qasmi

In al-Iqd al-Fareed, Volume 2 page 91:

خرجت عائشة باكيةَ تقول: قُتل عثمان مظلوماً! فقال لها عمار: أنتِ بالأمس تُحرضين عليه، واليومَ تَبْكِين عليه!

Aysha went out weeping and saying: Uthman has been killed as one that is oppressed.’ Ammar bin Yasir replied: ‘Yesterday you were inciting people against him and today you weep for him!’

In Tabaqat al Kubra, Volume 3 page 82 we read the testimony of famous Tabayee namely Masrooq which has also been quoted by the Abu Sulaiman and has declared the tradition as authentic:

“Musrooq said to Aisha, Uthman died because of you, you wrote to people and incited them against him”.

In Iqd al Fareed, Volume 2 page 210 we learn that:

فقال مَرْوان: فقلت لها: هذا عَملك، كتبتِ إلى الناس تأمرينهم بالخروج عليه

“Marwan approached Aisha and said Uthman died because of you, you wrote to people and incited them against him”.

Also in Iqd al Fareed, Volume 2 page 93 we read that:

دخل المُغيرة بن شُعبة على عائشة فقالت: يا أبا عبد الله، لو رأيتني يومَ الجمل وقد نفذتْ النِّصالُ هَوْدجي حتى وصل بعضُها إلى جِلْدي. قال لها المغيرة: وددتُ والله أن بَعضها كان قتلك. قالت: يرحمك الله، ولم تقول هذا؟ قال: لعلَها تكون كَفّارة في سَعْيك على عُثمان.

“Mugheera bin Shuba approached Aisha and she said to him, ‘In Jamal some of the arrows that were fired, nearly pierced my skin.’ Mugheera replied ‘If only an arrow had killed you, that would have acted as penance for the fact that you had incited the people to kill Uthman “.

For those who make attempts to have us believed that Ayesha shared very cordial relations with Uthman, we should remind such people that at one place Ayesha, herself made the following admission:

Ibn Jarir Tabari – Ziyaad bin Ayub – Muassab bin Sulaiman al-Tamimi – Muhammad – Asim bin Kulayb – his father:
During the time of Uthman bin Affan, I had a dream. I saw a man who was ruling the people while he was ill in bed, and a woman was by his head. The people were after him and hastened toward him and had she forbidden them, they would have stopped. But she did not, so they seized and killed him. I used to recount this dream of mine to everyone, whether settled or nomad, and they were surprised and did not know what it meant.
Then when Uthman was killed the news reached us as we were returning from a raid, and my companions said: ‘You dream Kulayb!’. When we got to Basrah, and we had not been there long when someone said: ‘Talha and al-Zubayr are coming and the Mother of the Faithful is with them’. This alarmed the people and they were surprised, but they were claiming to the people that they had only come out of anger over Uthman and in penance over the way they had not supported him. The Mother of the Faithful spoke up: “We became angry at Uthman on your behalf because of three things he did: giving command to youths, expropriating common property and beating (people) with whips and sticks“.

 History of Tabari, English Edition, volume 16, pages 99-100

Ziyad bin Ayub: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Tazkirat al-Hufaz, v2 p508), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p318). Mussab bin Salam al-Tamimi: Al-Albaani considered him Thiqah (Silsila Sahiha, v5 p280). Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p186). Muhammad bin Suqah: Dahabi said: ’Hujja’ (Siar alam alnubala, v6, p1340, Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p84). Asim bin Kulayb: Dahabi said: ‘Authenticated’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v8 p457), Al-Albaani said:‘Thiqah’ (Silsila Sahiha, v3 p334), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p459). Kulayb bin Shehab: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p44), Dahabi said: ‘Authenticated’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p149).

Aisha in her opposition to Uthman deemed the Egyptians as oppressed ones, then in her opposition to Ali (as) she deemed Egyptians to be oppressors

Let us give a clear stance of Aisha about the people of Egypt who were at the front line in their agitation against Uthman. During the time of these tensions, she was incorrectly informed that Uthman was not murdered rather Uthman killed the people of Egypt who had besieged him. The reaction of Aisha on hearing this news is worth noting:

According to Umar bin Shabbah – Abul Hassan al-Madaini – Suhaym, the mawla of Wabrah Al-Tamimi- Ubayd bin Amr al-Qurashi: Aisha had left Madina while Uthman was being besieged. A man [just in from Madina] called Akhdar came up to her in Makka, so she asked: “What are the people doing?” “Uthman has killed the Egyptians” he replied. “We belong to Allah and to Him we return” exclaimed Aisha. “Does he kill people who come seeking justice and denouncing injustice? By Allah! We don’t approve of such a thing”. Presently another man came. “What are the people doing?” she asked. “Uthman has been killed by the Egyptians” he replied. Akhdar amazed. She He alleged that the killed was the killer.
 History of Tabari [English translation] Volume 16 page 39

Ibn Shabbah: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p63), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p719). Abu al-Hassan al-Medaini: Dahabi said: ‘Seduq’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v16 p289), Imam Yahya ibn Mueen said: ‘Thiqah Thiqah Thiqah’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v3 p153), Tabari said: ‘Seduq’ (Lisan al-Mizan, v4 p253). Suhaim muwla Wabra: Imam Abu Hatim mentioned him and didn’t record any negative remakrs about him (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v4 p304). Ubaid bin Amr: A Sahabi (Al-Isaba, v4 p345).

The narration clarifies Aeysha stance according to which the people of Egypt were on the right path and were denouncing the injustice of Uthman. Then she met Ibn Abbas and tired to persuade him to support Talha as next caliph. Ibn Abbas told her but Ibn abbas told her that the people were rather interested in Ali bin Abi Talib (as). This statement of Ibn Abbas spoiled her mood. Then she met Ubaid bin Abi Salmah who told her that people had then formally chosen Ali bin Abi Talib (as) as next caliph. This news incensed her and that was the precise time and reason which made her change her policy about Uthman and since that day, her stance was that Uthman was killed as an oppressor, the stance which Nawasib of today including the author of would like us to believe.

Two: Talha’s lead role in killing Uthman

As part of his denial that Talha killed Uthman , Abu Sulaiman quotes as follows:

Al-Darqutni narrated, “Uthman entered the mosque and saw Talha sitting on the east side of the mosque. Uthman said, “O’ Talha!” Talha answered, “Yes!” Uthman said, “Do you know that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, ‘Anyone who would buy this piece of land to add it to the mosque?’ and I bought it with my own money?” Talha answered, “O’ Allah, I do know.” … Uthman said again, “I call you by the grace of Allah, do you know that I supported the army of Al-Esrah just like a hundred men?” Talha answered, “O’ Allah! I do know.” Then Talha said, “O’ Allah! I know nothing of Uthman except that he is an innocent man!”” [Mawaqif Al-Sahabah fi Al-Fitnah, vol. 2, p. 24] [Al-Tareekh Al-Kabeer by Al-Bukhari, vol. 4, p. 358]

The same Abu Sulaiman also mentions later, that Marwan was one of those individuals that had sought to protect Uthman when he was besieged. Clearly if anyone was to know who played a role in killing Uthman it would have been his cousin Marwan. So whom did Marwan blame for killing Uthman? Imam Ibn Saad has recorded:

“When Uthman was killed, and Talha, Zubair and A’isha went to Basra in order to avenge the blood of ‘Uthman, at that time Marwan also accompanied them. When all the people were running away in battlefield (after Aisha’s forces were defeated), Marwan saw Talha and said: ‘By Allah, he is responsible for killing of Uthman, and indeed he treated Uthman badly. And I need no other testimony after watching all this from my own eyes’. He took an arrow and fired it at Talha, that killed him.”
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad, Volume 5 page 38, Biography of Marwan bin al-Hakam

Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani records:

وأخرجه أبو القاسم البغوي بسند صحيح عن الجارود بن أبي سبرة قال : لما كان يوم الجمل نظر مروان إلى طلحة ، فقال : لا أطلب ثأري بعد اليوم ، فنزع له بسهم فقتله .

Abu al-Qasim al-Baghawi narrated with Sahih chain from the Jarud bin Abi Sabra that he said: ‘When it was the battle of Jamal, Marwan looked at Talha and said: ‘I will not seek for my revenge after this day’ then he shot him an arrow and killed him.’

Moreover he records:

وأخرج يعقوب بن سفيان بسند صحيح عن قيس بن أبي حازم أن مروان بن الحكم رأى طلحة في الخيل ، فقال : هذا أعان على عثمان فرماه بسهم في ركبته ، فما زال الدم يسيح حتى مات

Narrated Yaqub bin Sufyan with Sahih chain from Qais bin Abi Hazem that Marwan bin al-Hakam saw Talha on the horse, he (Marwan) said: ‘He assisted against Uthman’ then he shot him an arrow in his knee, he was bleeding till he died.
Al-Isaba, Volume 3 page 432 Translation No. 4270

Imam Hakim has also recorded with a Sahih chain:

Akrash stated: ‘We were fighting with Talha against Ali. Marwan was with us, then we started to face defeat hence Marwan said: ‘I will not seek for my revenge after this day, then he shot him with an arrow and killed him.”
 Mustadrak al-Hakim, Volume 3 page 417 Tradition 5589

Imam Dhahabi has recorded:

جويرية بن أسماء عن يحيى بن سعيد عن عمه أن مروان رمى طلحة بسهم فقتله ، ثم التفت إلى أبان فقال قد كفيناك بعض قتلة أبيك

Jawairiya bin Asma narrated from Yahya bin Saeed who narrated from his uncle that Marwan shot Talha an arrow and killed him, then he looked at Aban (son of Uthman) and said: ‘I have spared you from one of the murderers of your father.’
 Siar alam al-Nubala, Volume 1 page 36

Jawairya bin Asma: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p168), Dahabi said:‘Thiqah’ (al-Kashif, v1 p299). Yahya bin Saeed: Ibn Hajar said:‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p303), Dahabi said: ‘Thabt’ (al-Kashif, v2 p366). Yazid bin Hayan (Yahya bin Saeed’s uncle): Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p323), Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (al-Kashif, v2 p381).

Sunni scholar Muhibuddin Tabari (d. 694) his esteemed work Riyadh al Nadhira fi Manaqib Asharah Mubasharah, Volume 1 page 303 while writing about the murderer of Talha recorded:

والمشهور أن مروان بن الحكم هو الذي قتله، رماه بسهم؛ وقال: لا أطلب بثأري بعد اليوم

It is popularly known that Marwan is the one who killed him, he shot him an arrow and said: ‘After this day, there is no need to seek revenge’
 Riyadh al Nadhira, Volume 1 page 303

These reports prove that even the Umayad leaders such as Marwan who (alongside Talha) fought Imam Ali (as), knew that Talha and Zubayr were the actual killers of Uthman. Whlist Marwan was well aware of the role of Talha and Zubayr in the agitation and murder of Uthman, the words spoken to him by Sahabi Saeed bin al-Aas prior to the batlle of Jamal might have motivated him to do what he did by killing Talha:

Umar bin Shabbah – Abu al-Hasan – Abu Amr – Utbah bin al-Mughirah bin al-Akhnas: At Dhat Irq, Saeed bin al-Aas met Marwan bin al-Hakam and his men and asked: “Where are you heading for? Those from whom you seek revenge are on the rumps of camels. Kill them and then go back to your houses! “
 History of Tabari, English edition, Volume 16, page 44

It is little wonder that even Talha’s son admitted the role of his father in killing Uthman. In ‘al Imama wal Siyasa’ page 60 we read that:

“Someone asked Muhammad bin Talha who killed Uthman ? He replied that “one third of his death was attributable to Aisha and one third was due to my father Talha”.

No matter how many attempts Nawasib try to prove that Sahabah particularly Talha shared cordial relations with Uthman the historical evidence recorded by the Sunni Imams proves that the Sahaba such as Talha were not the well wishers of Uthman. We read the testimony of the Imam of Ahle Sunnah Muhammad bin Sireen recorded in Iqd al-Fareed, Volume 2 page 95:

عن إبن سيرين: لم يكن من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أشد على عثمان من طلحة۔

Ibn Sireen said: ‘No one amongst the companions of the Prophet (pbuh) showed more enmity towards Uthman than Talha.’

Similarly, in Tarikh Madina, Volume 4 page 1169 we read the testimony of a Tabayee namely Auf bin Abi Jamila al-Erabi:

حدثنا محمد بن منصور قال، حدثنا جعفر بن سليمان الضبعي، عن عَوف قال: كان أشد الصحابة على عثمان طلحة بن عبيد الله، وإنما أفسدَ عثمان رضي الله عنه بطانة استَبْطَنَها من الطلقاء.

Muhammad bin Mansor – Jaffar bin Sulaiman al-Dab’ie – Auf said: ‘The most offensive Sahabi against Uthman was Talha’

Muhammad bin Mansor al-Maki: Dhahabi mentioned him in al-Kashif and did not cite any objection against him, Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p136), Al-Albaani counted him among the rijal of Bukhari & Muslim (Silsila Sahiha, v5 p133). Jaffar bin Sulaiman al-Dab’ie: Dhahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p294), Ibn Hajar said:‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p162). Auf bin Abi Jamila: Dhahabi said: ‘Authenticated’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v3 p305), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p759).

This proves the presence of Sahaba against Uthman, withTalha neing one such person. Whilst these evidences shall suffice to prove the role of Talha in the agitation against Uthman and in his murder, let us give another blow to the Nawasib, by calling upon the testimony of none other than Uthman himself to determine his opinion of Talha during the time of sedition. Hafiz Ibn Shabah al-Numairi (d. 262 H) records in ‘Tarikh Madina’ Volume 4 page 1197:

فلما كان يوم العيد صلى علي رضي الله عنه بالناس ، فمال الناس إليه وتركوا طلحة ، فجاء طلحة إلى عثمان رضي الله عنه يعتذر ، فقال عثمان : الآن يا إبن الحضرمية ألبت الناس علي حتى إذا غلبك علي على الأمر ، وفاتك ما أردت جئت تعتذر ، لا قبل الله منك.

Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair said: ‘When it was the day of Eid, Ali (ra) lead the prayer for the people, hence the people went to him (Ali) and abandoned Talha. Then Talha went to apologize to Uthman (ra). Uthman said to him: ‘Oh son of Hadramiya! You incited people against me and then, when Ali won against you and you missed what you wanted to achieve, you came to apologize, may Allah not accept from you.’

Then we also read the following words of Uthman spoken about Talha recorded by Tabari:

I entered Uthman’s presence (During the agitation against Uthman) and talked with him for an hour. He said: “Come Ibn Abbas/Ayyash,” and he took me by the hand and had me listen to what the people were saying at his door. We heard some say, “what are you waiting for,” while others were saying, “wait, perhaps he will repent.” While the two of us were standing there (behind the door and listening), Talha Ibn Ubaydillah passed by and said: “Where is Ibn Udays?” He was told, “He is over there.” Ibn Udays came to (Talha) and whispered something with him, and then went back to his associates and said: “Do not let anyone go in (to the house of Uthman) to see this man or leave his house.”

Uthman said to me: “These are the orders of Talha.” He continued, “O God! Protect me from Talha for he has provoked all these people against me. By God, I hope nothing will come of it, and that his own blood will be shed. Talha has abused me unlawfully. I heard the Messenger of God said: ‘The blood of a Muslim is lawful in three cases: apostasy, adultery, and the one who kills except in legitimate retaliation for another.’ So why should I be killed?”

Ibn Abbas continued: I wanted to leave (the house), but they blocked my path until Muhammad Ibn Abi Bakr who was passing by requested them to let me go, and they did so.
 History of al-Tabari, English version, Volume 15, pages 199 -200

Muhammad bin Umar al-Waqidi. Abrahim bin Salim: Dahabi said: ‘Authenticated’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p212), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p56). Salim bin Abi Umaya: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p422), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p334). Basr bin Sa’eed: Dahabi mentioned him without passing any negative rarmark about him, Al-Albaani deemed him Thiqah and counted him amongst the rijal of Bukhari and Muslim (Silsila Sahiha, v3 p79), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p125). Abdullah bin Ayyash: Dahab said: ‘Seduq’ (Siar alam alnubala, v7 p333), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p521).

Though the statement of Uthman we just cited shall be sufficient to shut the mouth of our opponents, if we read the following incident that occurred prior to battle of Jamal, we will come to know that Talha acknowledged his lead role in opposing Uthman and that he and his supporters were now preparing to fight Ali bin Abi Talib (as) to avenge that same murder. According to Ahmad bin Mansur – Yahya bin Main – Hisham bin Yousuf the qadi of Sana – Abdullah b Musab bin Thabit bin Abdullah bin al-Zubayr – Musa bin Uqbah – Alqamah bin Waqqas al-Laythi:

When Talhah and al-Zubayr and Aisha set out, I noticed that Talhah preferred to sit alone and would flick his beard against his chest. So I said to him: “Abu Muhammad! I see that you prefer to sit alone and keep flicking your beard against your chest. If there is something you dislike [going on], sit [and talk about it]!” “Alqamah bin Waqqas, “He replied to me, “we were all united against others. But now we have become two mountains of iron, each seeking to [finish] the other. There was indeed some thing I did against Uthman and my penance for it can be nothing less than having my blood spilled in the course of seeking vengeance for his blood.”
 History of Tabari, English Edition, volume 16, page 79

Ahmad bin Mansur: Dahabi said: ‘One of the Thiqah’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v20 p57), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p47). Yahya bin Main: Dahabi said: ‘The Imam of Muhadithin’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p376), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p316). Hisham bin Yousuf: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Tazkirat al-Hufaz, v1 p346), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p268). Abdullah bin Musab: Imam Al-Albaani said: ‘Hasan al Hadih’ (Silsila Sahiha, v4 p443), Imam Ibn Haban included him in the book of Thiqa narrators (al-Thuqat, v7 p56). Musa bin Uqbah: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p306), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p226). Alqamah bin Waqqas: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p35), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p687). States:

Authentic narrations show that Talha and Al-Zubayr were anguished for the death of Uthman.

Let us see the intensitiy of the ‘anguish’ which Talha had due to Uthman’s murder from Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 page 192:

Majm’a bin Jaria al-Ansari passed in front of Talha bin Ubaidllah, he (Talha) said: ‘Oh Majm’a, how is your friend (Uthman)?’ He (Majm’a) replied: ‘I reckon you will kil him’. He (Talha) replied: ‘If he is, so (what), he is neither an angel nor a prophet.’
 Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 6 page 192

Talha co-ordinated the siege of Uthman’s palace

Whilst the Egyptians had surrounded Uthman’s home, the presence of prominent Sahaba on the ground is what gave their opposition momentum. Talha was present outside Uthman’s residence during the siege. Tabari reports the following conversation between Imam Ali and Talha during the siege over Uthman:

Ali said to Talha: “I ask you by Allah to send people away from (attacking) Uthman.” Talha replied: “No, by God, not until the Umayad voluntarily submit to what is right.” (Uthman was the head of Umayad).
History of al-Tabari, English version, Volume 15 page 235

Ibn Asakir records:

Abu Bakar Muhammad bin al-Hussain al-Farzi – Abul Hussain Muhammad bin Ali bin al-Muhtadi – Abul Hassan Ali bin al-Umar al-Harbi – Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Harun – Abdulrehman bin Habib – Ahmad bin Muawiyah bin Bakar al-Bahali – Ismaeel bin Mujalid – Byan bin Bashar – Qays bin Abi Hazim narrates that a man had visited Talha during the siege and requested that he intervene to prevent the death of Uthman. Talha replied: ‘No by Allah, not until the Banu Ummayya surrender the right of their own accord.’
  Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Volume 39 page 403

Abu Bakr al-Marzefi al-Farzi: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v19 p632), Ibn al-Jawzy said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Al-Muntazem, v10 p34). Muhammad bin Ali bin al-Muhtadi: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Siar alam al-nubala, v18 p241), Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Tarikh Baghdad, v11 p109). Ali bin Umar al-Harbi: Dahabi said: ‘Seduq’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v3 p148), Al-Azhari said: ‘Seduq’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v3 p148). Muhammad bin Harun: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v15 p25), Al-Darqutni said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v15 p25). Abdulrahman bin Habib: Dahabi said: ‘Seduq’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v2 p555), Ibn Haban included him in the book of Thiqa narrators (al-Thuqat, v7 p77). Ahmad bin Mu’awiya: Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said: ‘Nothing bad about him’ (Tarikh al-islam, v17 p52), Ibn Haban included him in the book of Thiqa narrators (al-Thuqat, v8 p41). Ismail bin Mujalid: Dahabi said: ‘Seduq’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p249), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p98). Bayan bin Bashar: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v6 p124), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p141). Qays bin Abi Hazim: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v4 p198), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p32).

Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah records the incident in his book Al-Musanaf, Volume 8 page 685 in the following manner:

يعلى بن عبيد عن إسماعيل بن أبي خالد عن حكيم بن جابر قال : لما حصر عثمان أتى على طلحة وهو مستند إلى وسائد في بيته فقال : أنشدك الله ! ما رددت الناس عن أمير المؤمنين فإنه مقتول ، فقال طلحة : لا والله حتى تعطي بنو أمية الحق من أنفسها.

Yala bin Ubaid – Smaeel bin Abi Khalid – Hakim bin Jabir that he said : ‘When Uthman was besieged, Ali came to Talha while he (Talha) was lying on a cushion in his house and said to him: ‘I ask you by Allah to send people away from (attacking) the commender of the believers (Uthman) because he is almost killed.” Talha replied: ‘No, by God, not until the Umayad voluntarily submit to what is right.’

Yala bin Ubaid: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p397), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p341). Ismail bin Abi Khalid: Dahabi said: ‘Hafiz’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p245), Ibn Hajar said:‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p93). Hakim bin Jabir: Dahabi said:‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p347), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p234).

If Talha had nothing to do with the killing of Uthman why did he not respond to Imam Ali (as) ‘Why have you come here, I love Uthman I have nothing to do with these wicked people!’. It is amusing that Abu Sulaiman and his other Nasabi brethren refer to the anguish expressed by Talha at the death of Uthman, does this statement evidence such anguish. It is common sense you only plead for leniency for those that have the power to change a situation. That is why when people have been sentenced to death, lawyers or family shall plead clemency to the Head of State since he has the final say in whether / or not a person shall be spared. When the Head of State grants such a power then Stat officials are duty bound to ensure that a pending execution is aborted. Clemency needs to be sort from the man at the top whose orders will be adhered to by those below. When would Imam Ali (as) want to plead clemency for Uthman from Talha it was because he had influence over the people that had besieged Uthman. Not only did he have an influence over them, it was clear that the ‘rebels’ were implementing what was his agenda, after all he stated ‘No, by God, not until the Umayad voluntarily submit to what is right.’ This reference shows us a very different attitude towards Uthman, one that Abu Sulaiman what hope we never located!! Making a request to Talha for showing lieniency in Uthman’s siege and on top of that, Talha’s blatant refusal shall no doubt give sleepless nights to all those that seek to absolve Talha from inciting the opposition and murder of Uthman.

Not only was Talha present at the time of the siege but he was in fact Incharge of the rebel camp and he was coordinating with one of the leaders of the Egyptian rebels Sahabi Abdulrehman Ibn Udays as we cited earlier from History of Tabari, English translation Volume 15 page 199. This reference makes it absolutely clear that Talha was the key adviser to one of the Egyptian leaders – to the extent that they were heeding his advice on how to act. Interesting is also Uthman’s admission that the presence of the people at Uthmans door was due to Talha’s incitement – he placed the blame squarely on the shoulders of Talha. Whose opinion should we give greater credence to, Abu Sulaiman’s or that of the victim Uthman?

Talha even deprived Uthman of water

Talha was the key figure guiding the Egyptians, he had ensured that all methods, no matter how extreme were used to pressure Uthman into abdicating his post, this included the cutting off water to Uthman. Naturally this fact is deeply embarrassing to ‘Abu Sulaiman who states confidently:

“It is an obvious lie that Talha and Al-Zubair surrounded Uthman and prevented him from reaching to water. Where is the authentic attribution? And what reference did Al-Tijani rely on? I challenge him to bring to light one single authentic reference about that!”

The only thing that is ‘obvious’ is the fact that Abu Sulaiman failed to do some homework before making such a claim! We read in Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 2 pages 292-293:

وحدثني أحمد بن إبراهيم الدورقي حدثنا وهب بن جرير بن حازم حدثنا أبي عن يونس بن يزيد الأيلي عن الزهري قال:۔۔۔ وكان الزبير وطلحة قد استوليا على الأمر، ومنع طلحة عثمان من أن يدخل عليه الماء العذب

“Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Duraqi – Wahb bin Jarir – his father – Yunus bin Yazid al-Eli – al-Zuhari said: “…Al-Zubair and Talha when they got control of the situation, Talha prevented water from being delivered to Uthman”

Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-Duraqi: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p29). Wahb bin Jarir: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p356), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p291). Jarir bin Zaid: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p158). Yunus bin Yazid al-Eli: Dahabi said: ‘One of the Thabt’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p404), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p351). Al-Zuhari: Dahabi said: ‘The Hafiz of his time’ (Siar alam alnubala, v5 p326), Ibn Hajar said: ‘There is an agreement about his magnificence’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p133).

Allow us to present this fact from Tarikh al-Tabari:

“Abdurrahman Ibn al-Aswad said: “I constantly saw Ali avoiding (Uthman) and not acting as he formerly had. However, I know that he spoke with Talha when Uthman was under siege, to the effect that water skins should be taken to him. Ali was extremely upset (from Talha) about that until finally water skins were allowed to reach Uthman”
 Tarikh al-Tabari, English version, Volume 15, pages 180-181

So Abu Sulaiman in light of this reference could you answer these questions:

  1. If Talha had nothing to do with this action, then why did Imam ‘Ali (as) approach Talha directly requesting that water be sent out to Uthman?
  2. Could Imam Ali (as) not have approached one of the Egyptians, if only they were responsible?
  3. If Talha had no association with this cruel act, then why was Imam ‘Ali (as) angry with him?
  4. If Talha had no association with the rebels then how is it that water was allowed to reach Uthman AFTER Imam Ali (as) remonstrated with Talha?

Apart from these two references, we have previously already mentioned through authentic sources that people (as) approached none other than Talha to was to requested him to show some leniency in Uthman’s siege which he turned down, so it should not be hard to believe that Talha was the one who was also preventing water to be reached to Uthman!

Three: Zubayr’s lead role in killing Uthman States

Authentic narrations show that Talha and Al-Zubayr were anguished for the death of Uthman . They even tried to defend him; Abi Habeebah said, “Al-Zubayr sent me to Uthman to deliver a message while he was surrounded. I entered upon Uthman in a clear day and he was sitting on a chair. Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali, Abu Hurayrah, Abdullah bin Omar, and Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr were all present too. I said, “Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awam had sent me to you. He sends you his greetings and says, ‘I am under my allegiance to you. I did not change my allegiance nor did I break it. If you wish, I will join you and be one of your men, and if you wish, I will stay too. The tribe of Umro bin Owf had promised me to be under my command, and they would carry out what I order them.’ When Uthman heard the message, he said, ‘Allahu Akbar! Thanks are due to Allah for He who had saved my brother. Send him my greetings and tell him, “If you joined me, then you will be one of my men, but I like you to stay where you are at now….”’ When Abu Hurayrah heard the message, he said, “Do you want me to tell you what my ears heard from the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him?” They answered, “Yes!” Abu Hurayrah said, “I bear witness that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said, ‘When I am gone, afflictions and troubles will occur.’ So we asked, ‘How could we save ourselves from that O’ Messenger of Allah?’ He answered, ‘Adhere to the faithful man and his party,’ and he pointed towards Uthman bin Affan.” The people who were present at Uthman’s house stood up and said, ‘Now we see clearly. Give us the permission to wage Jihad!’ Uthman answered, ‘I order whoever gave allegiance to me not to fight.’” [Virtues of the Companions, Ahmed bin Hanbal, vol. 1, p. 511, with authentic chain of narrators].

This is indeed a very amusing quote. How exactly could Zubayr had sent his son when he was in fact leading the opposition to Uthman? Abdullah ibn Zubayr may well have been in the Palace, but it was of his own accord for Zubayr was co-ordinating opposition to Uthman outside the Palace. As proof let us hear the testimony of one of they key witnesses to Uthman’s murder:

We read in Iqd al Fareed, Volume 2 page 95 that after Uthman’s murder, Uthman’s wife wrote a letter to Mu’awiya bin Hind, a portion of which we cite below:

وكان في كتابها: مِن نائلة بنت الفُرافصة إلى معاوية بن أبي سفيان، أما بعد:…… وإني أقُص عليكم خَبره، إني شاهدةٌ أمرَه كُلَّه: إنّ أهل المدينة حَصروه في داره وحَرسوه ليلَهم ونهارَهم، قياماً على أبوابه بالسِّلاحِ، يَمنعونه من كل شيء قَدروا عليه، حتى مَنعوه الماء، فمكث هو ومَن معه خمسين ليلةً؛ وأهلُ مصر قد أسندوا أمرَهم إلى عليّ ومحمد بن أبي بكر وعمّار بن ياسر وطلحة والزُبير، فأمروهم بقتله

“From Nayla bint Farafasa to Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan. I was present at the time when Uthman was murdered and I shall narrate the event to you. People of Madina surrounded Uthman’s house and they started guarding the door with their weapons. For fifty nights they did not let anything enter the house. It was Muhammad bin Abu Bakr, Ammar Yasir, Talha and Zubayr that gave the order to the people to kill Uthman”.

In a murder trial, eyewitness testimony to the murder is given the greatest credence, in this case, Uthman’s wife was a direct eyewitness to the whole thing. She said that the Sahaba (residents living in Madina) gave the order to kill Uthman. She had clearly identified Talha and Zubayr as playing a key role in killing her husband. Does it make sense that outside Zubayr is drawing up plans to kill Uthman whilst at the same time he sends his son to protect the khalifa? The role of Zubayr was known to all.

We should also remind our oponents the testimony of Ashter regarding the role of Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair in Uthman’s murder namely:

 حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن صالح ، حدثنا أبو بكر ، عن مغيرة ، عن إبراهيم ، عن علقمة ، قال الأشتر : « كان الذي أز أم المؤمنين على الخروج ابن الزبي

Abdulrehman bin Saleh narrated from Abu Bakar from Mughirah from Ibrahim from Alqamah who said: ‘Al-Ashter said that the one who instigated Ayesha to march was Ibn al-Zubair’
 Ghareeb al-Hadeeth by Ibrahim al-Harbi, Volume 4 page 24 Tradition 1114

Abdulrahman bin Saleh: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p574), Albani said: ‘Thiqah’ (Erwa al-Ghalil, v5 p170). Abu Bakr bin Ayash: Dahaibi said: ‘Sheikh ul Islam’ (Tazkirat al-hufaz, v1 p265), Ibn Hajar said:‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p366). Mughirah bin Maqsem: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v6 p10), Ibn Hajar said:‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p208). Ibrahim al-Nakhei: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v1 p75), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p69). Alqamah bin Qays: Dahabi said:‘Thabt’ (Tazkirat al-Hufaz, v1 p48), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p687).

Abu Sulaiman had posed the following question:

No one disagrees that Talha and Al-Zubayr were among the first people who sought justice for the blood of Uthman. They solely marched for this reason. Then how come they would encourage the killing of Uthman and surround him and yet fight against their own partners in the crime?

It would be perhaps more apt for Abu Sulaiman to answer this. The fact is both individuals played a lead role in killing Uthman, if this is an incorrect claim then why did Marwan kill Talha for the death of Uthman? The fact is like Aisha the matter had switched in to a desire to overthrow Imam Ali (as). Alhamdolillah Imam Ali (as) exposed their behavior.

In Al Istiab, one of Imam Ali (as)’s speeches is recorded in the following manner:

“When Ali marched for the battle of Jamal, Ali (ra) said from the pulpit: ‘Surely Allah required Jihad and made it the supporter (of religion) and the life does not become on rightness without it, and there is no (correct) faith without it, and I have been tried by four persons, the most clever and generous man Talha, the most brave man al-Zubair, the most obedient person for the people Aisha, and the fastest person responding to sedition Y’ala bin Umaya. By Allah no one condemned me for any abominable action, nor I did I monopolise the money nor am I inclined towards my desires. They (Talha, Zubayr and Aisha) ask the right for something which they themselves abandoned. They ask to avenge the blood, that they themselves shed. They were responsible for the killing of Uthman, to which I was not a party, but now they deny it. I was not a party to Uthman’s killing, and the only culprit party to pay for the killing of Uthman is this rebel group. They made their oath of allegiance to me and then broke it, and I accept the hujja of Allah on them”.
 Al-Istiab, Volume 1 page 148 Biography of Rafa bin Rafe bin Malik
 Al-Istiab, Volume 1 page 232 Biography of Talha bin Ubaidullah

From the above-mentioned statement of Imam Ali (as), it is obvious that Talha, Zubayr and Aisha were the real killers of Uthman. He openly questioned their motives. Shaykh Kamaluddin Ibn Talha Shafiyee records in Matalib al Seul, page 117 Dhikr Jamal that:

Ali asked Zubayr about the reasons that made him fight against him, to which Zubayr stated, “I want to fight to avenge the murder of Uthman ”. Imam Ali replied, “If you have justice in your heart, you would realize that it was you and your friends that murdered Uthman”.

Imam of Ahle Sunnah al Zuhri also records a similar conversation between Imam Ali (as) and Zubayr prior to the battle of Jamal that shall shatter the Nawasib who try their best to absolve Talha and Zubayr form the murder of Uthman:

Ahmed bin Zuhayr – his father Abu Khaythama – Wahb bin Jarir bin Hazim – his father – Yunus bin Yazid al-Ayli – al-Zuhri:
“The news, that is of the seventy who were killed with al-Abdi at al-Basrah, reached Ali, so he advanced with 12000 men and came to al-Basrah ……When the forces confronted each other, Ali went out on his horse and called out to al-Zubayr and the two of them confronted each other…..Ali said to al-Zubair: “Are you asking me for compensation for the blood of ‘Uthman, when it was you who killed him? I ask Allah in His power right now to give a hateful punishment to he among us who was the severest in opposing ‘Uthman.” Ali said to Talhah: ” You have brought the Messenger of Allah’s wife to make her fight while you hide your wife at home.”

 History of al-Tabari, English Edition, Volume 16 pages 125-126

Ahmad bin Zuhayr: Dahabi said: ‘Renowned Hafiz’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v20 p252), Al-Albaani said: ‘Thiqah’ (Silsila Sahiha, v3 p446). Zuhair Abu khaythama: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Siar alam alnubala, v11 p489), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p316). Wahab bin Jarir: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p356), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p291). Jarir bin Hazim: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1, p291), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p158). Yunus bin Yazid: Dahabi said: ‘One of the Thabt’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p404), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p351). Al-Zuhari: Dahabi said: ‘The hafiz of his time’ (Siar alam alnubala, v5 p326), Ibn Hajar said: ‘There is an agreement about his magnificence’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p133).

This tradition is recorded with almost identical words by Ibn Jarir Tabari – Umar- Abu Bakar al-Hudhali – Qatadah in History of Tabari, English Edition, volume 16, pages 115-116.

The following words of Ali bin Abi Talib (as) are also important for those Nawasib who make feeble attempts to absolve Talha and Zubayr form the murder of Uthman. Ibn Jarir Tabari from Muhammd – from Hisham bin Sa’d – from Abu Hilal – from Ibn Abbas:

Five days after the murder of ‘Uthman, I arrived in Medina from Mecca. I went to go and visit Ali but was told that al-Mughirah bin Shubah was with him. So I sat at the entrance for an hour. When Mughirah came out, he greeted me and said, “How long ago did you get here?”. “This past hour, ” I replied. I then went into Ali and greeted him. He asked me, “Did you meet al-Zubayr and Talhah?” ” I met them in al-Nawasif.” “Who was with them?” he asked. “Abu Said bin Harith bin Hisham with a Qurashi force,” I replied. Ali then said: “I am sure they will never refrain from coming out and saying, “We seek repayment for Uthman’s blood. By Allah! We know that they are the ones who killed Uthman.
  History of Tabari, English Edition, Volume 16, page 23

These references make it clear that Imam Ali (as) deemed Zubayr to be the killer of Uthman. In addition to Ali bin Abi Talib (as), let us now read the similar testimony of Imam Hassan Basri:

Israel bin Musa said: I heard al-Hassan saying: ‘Talha and Zubair came to Basra, the people asked them: ‘Why have you come here?’. They replied: ‘We have come to avenge Uthman.’’ Al-Hassan said: ‘Oh God, didn’t they have brains to say that no one other than you (Talha and Zubair) killed Uthman.’
 Mustadrak al-Hakim, Volume 3 page 128 Tradition 4606

Now let us see the commentso of a Tabayee namely Mutrif bin Abdullah bin al-Shakhir:

قلت : ورد فيه ما أخرجه أحمد والبزار من طريق مطرف بن عبد الله بن الشخير قال : ” قلنا للزبير – يعني في قصة الجمل – يا أبا عبد الله ما جاء بكم ؟ ضيعتم الخليفة الذي قتل – يعني عثمان – بالمدينة ثم جئتم تطالبون بدمه – يعني بالبصرة – فقال الزبير : إنا قرأنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم واتقوا فتنة لا تصيبن الذين ظلموا منكم خاصة ، لم نكن نحسب أنا أهلها حتى وقعت منا حيث وقعت “۔

Mutrif bin Abdullah bin al-Shakhir said: ‘We said to al-Zubair during battle of Jamal: ‘Oh Aba Abdullah! What brought you here? You abandoned the Caliph who had been killed -means Uthman- in Madina, and then came to Basra asking to avenge his blood’. Al-Zubair said: ‘We used to recite during the time of the messenger of Allah (pbuh) ‘{And fear an affliction which may not smite those of you in particular who are unjust}’ we didn’t realize that we are its people till happened, what has happened.’
1. Fath al-Bari, Volume 13 page 3
2. Tafsir ibn Katheer, Volume 2, page 311
3. Siar alam alnubala, Volume 1 page 57
4. Tarikh Dimashq, Volume 18 page 405
5. Emta al-Asma, Volume 13 page 222
6. Fath al-Qadir, Volume 2 page 3000
7. Majm’a al-Zawaed, Volume 7 page 27 Tradition 11027 (Imam al-Haythami said: ‘The narrators are the narrators of Sahih’)

Firstly, we have the testimony of a Tabayee Mutrif bin Abdullah that Zubair had abandoned Uthman at the time of siege this refutes those advocates that assert that Zubair was worried about Uthman and was desperately seeking to help him. Secondly, Zubair’s own admission, which he did via citing a verse for the justification of his act. By citing that verse, Zubair was trying to imply that if someone sees something wrong, he should not maintain silence, rather he should stop evil from flourishing amongst the common people, because if silence is maintained Allah [swt] will also punish them with those who are committing the wrong. Zubair and his colleagues acted against Uthman by seeking reliance on this verse.

Perhaps Abu Sulaiman could explain why Zubayr did not deny the claims of Imam Ali (as), Mutrif bin Abdullah and of other people if he was indeed innocent? Why his silence over what was such a serious charge? Anyone accused of such a grave offence would seek to challenge such an accusation head on, to ensure that no one ever made such an allegation again. Why did Zubayr not seeking to refute this serious allegation if it was false? In fact, it was not only Ali (as), Imam Hassan (as) and Mutrif but many people viewed Talha, Zubayr and Aisha as the main agitators against Uthman, we will cite the reference later from History of Tabari, English Edition, Volume 16 pages 68-69.

Aisha, Talha and other Sahaba wrote to people inciting them to rise up against Uthman

On Ibn Saba’s activities, Abu Sulaiman claims that:

He also wrote secret letters to some people to collaborate on killing Uthman, and they are the second kind

The fact is the Sahaba had written letters inciting the people for an uprise against Uthman. We read in ‘al Imama wa al Siyasa’ page 64, that when Talha and Aisha reached Basra, a man approached Talha and said:

“O Talha, Do you recognize this letter?” Talha answered, “Yes” to which the man said’ “Don’t you feel ashamed that only a few days earlier, you wrote letters to us inciting us to kill Uthman and now you ask to avenge his blood?”

Baladhuri in Ansab al-Ashraf, Volume 1 page 308 similarly records that upon his arrival in Basra demanding vengeance for Uthman, Abdullah bin Hakim al Tamimi produced a letter by Talha wherein he had incited opposition to Uthman that Talha acknowledged that he had written:

وحدثني أبو خيثمة زهير بن حرب، حدثنا وهب بن جرير، عن أبيه، عن النعمان بن راشد: عن الزهري قال: لما قدم طلحة والزبير البصرة، أتاهما عبد الله بن حكيم التميمي بكتب كتبها طلحة إليهم يؤلبهم فيها على عثمان، فقال له حكيم: أتعرف هذه الكتب ؟ قال: نعم. قال: فما حملك على التأليب عليه أمس والطلب بدمه اليوم ؟ فقال: لم أجد في أمر عثمان شيئاً إلا التوبة والطلب بدمه

Abu Khuthaima Zuhair bin Harb from Wahab bin Jarir from his father from al-Numan bin Rashid from Al-Zuharu who said: ‘When Talha and Zubair arrived at Basra, Abdullah bin Hakeem al-Tamimi came to them with some letters that Talha had written to them, to incite them against Uthman. Thus Hakeem said to him (Talha): ‘Do you recognize these letters?’ He replied: ‘Yes’. He (Hakeem) said: ‘Why did you incite us against him yesterday and demand (revenge) for his blood today?’ He replied: ‘I found nothing in Uthman’s matter, hence I repent and demand (revenge) for his blood.’

Abu Khuthaima Zuhair bin Harb: Imam Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p315), Imam Ibn Abi Hatim said: ‘Seduq’ (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v3 p591). Wahab bin Jarir: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p291), Ibn abi Hatim said: ‘Seduq’ (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v9 p28). Jarir bin Hazim: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p158), Ibn Abi Hatim said: ‘Seduq’ (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v2 p504). al-Numan bin Rashid: Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p248), Ibn Abi Hatim said: ‘Seduq’ (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v8 p448). Al-Zuhari: Ibn Hajar said: ‘There is an agreement about his magnificence’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p133), Ibn abi Hatim said: ‘His Hadith is Hujja’ (Al-Jarh wa al-Tadil, v8 p74).

Talha not only deny the suggestion that he had authored written letters inciting people against Uthman, rather he acknowledged his role in the murder of Uthman and stated that he had now altered his position and was demanding to revenge his murder. In light of this fact what gave him the legal right to demand vengeance for a man, that he had himself killed? Would justice not demand that he handed himself in to Imam Ali (as) with a request that he be tried and punished for inciting murder?

In Iqd al Farid, Page 218, Volume 6, it is written that Marwan told Aisha that “Uthman was killed on account of your letters.

Talha and Aisha were not the only individuals to write letters, rather the Sahaba living in Madina had become disillusioned with Uthman and encouraged those Sahaba in other provinces to come to Madina and oppose Uthman. As proof we present al Tabari, English version, v15, p184:

“It was related to me by Jafar b. ‘Abdallah al—Muhammadi—‘Amr—Muhammad b. Ishaq b. Yasar al-Madani—his paternal uncle Abd al-Rahman b. Yasar:
When the people saw what Uthman was doing, the companions of the Prophet in Medina wrote to other companions who were scattered throughout the frontier provinces: “You have gone forth but to struggle in the path of Almighty God, for the sake of Muhammad’s religion. In your absence the religion of Muhammad has been corrupted and forsaken. So come back to reestablish Muhammad’s religion.” Thus, they came from every direction until they killed the Caliph (Uthman)”.

So Companions wrote the letters and the murder was committed by companions. If the followers of Mu’awiya claim that fake letters were sent, then why did the the Sahaba not distance themselves from their contents? Why did they not set the record straight and deny their authorship? Does their silence clearly not prove their acceptance of the claim that had been attributed to them?

The following words of the companions spoken to Zubayr prior to battle of Jamal serve as the final nail in the Nasibi coffin. Ibn Jarir Tabari narrated from Ahmad – from his father – from Wahab bin Jarir bin Hazim – from Younis bin Yazeed – from Zuhri:

I was told that when Talha and al-Zubayr heard that Ali had encamped at Dhu Qar, they left for al-Basrah and took the road to al-Munkadir. Ayesha then heard the dogs barking and asked: ‘What water is this?’. ‘Al-Hawab’ they replied. “We belong to Allah, and to him we return” she exclaimed. “I am she. I heard Messenger of God say in the presence of his wives, ‘ I wish I knew at which of you the dogs of al-Hawab will bark!’” and she wanted to turn back. Abdullah bin al-Zubayr came up to her, and it is said that he told her, “Whoever said that this was al-Hawab was lying”. And then persisted with her until she set off. They came to al-Basrah, the governor of which was Uthman bin Hunayf, and he asked them: “What makes you angry at our companion [Ali]?” “We don’t consider him more eligible for leadership than we” they replied “after what he has done”. “The man [Ali], made me governor, so I will write to him and inform him why you have come” said Uthman, “On the condition that I lead the prayer until his reply comes”. So they held back from him and he rode off.

But they waited only two days and then attacked Uthman [bin Hunayf] and fought with him at al-Zabuqah near the supply center. They gained the upper hand and captured Uthman. They were about to kill him but then they feared the wrath of the Ansar. So they attacked his hair and body instead.

Talhah and al-Zubair then rose to make speeches and said:

People of al-Basrah! Repentance should fit the crime. We wanted the Commander of Faithful only to get Uthman to satisfy [our complaints]. We didn’t want him to be killed, but the fools prevailed over the wise men and killed him.” “But Abu Muhammad!” the people replied Talhah. “The letters you sent us said otherwise.” [Talhah was unable to answer them, and upon that al-Zubayr said]“Did you [also] receive any letter from me about what he was doing?`”Asked al-Zubayr, going on to mention Uthman’s murder and what led to it and to emphasize Ali’s blame in it.

At this a man from Abd al-Qays stood up facing him and said: “Be silent, man! And listen so that we may speak.” Abdallah bin al-Zubayr retorted, “What position are you in to speak?” “Company of Muhajirun!” said the Abdi. “You were the first to respond to the message of God, and you gained favour through that, and then everyone else entered Islam following your example. Then when the Messenger of God died you gave allegiance to one of your number, but by Allah, you didn’t consult us in any way about it. We gave our approval nevertheless and went along with you, and Almighty and Glorious Allah blessed the Muslims through His caliphate. Then he died, having appointed a man Caliph in his place over you. Again you didn’t discuss it with us, but we gave our approval and accepted. When this caliph died, he placed the decision in the hands of six men, and you chose Uthman and gave him allegiance without consulting us. Then you found some faults with this man, so you killed him without consulting us. Then you gave allegiance to Ali, without consulting us. So what exactly are you angry with him about that we should fight him? Has he appropriated booty or carried out some injustice? Has he done something you object to such that we should join you against him? If not, then what is going on?”
Talhah and al-Zubayr’s men then tried to kill this Abdi, but his tribesmen stood in their way. But the next morning they leaped on him and his men and killed seventy men.”
 History of Tabari, English Edition, Volume 16 pages 68-69

Ahmad bin Zuhayr: Dahabi said: ‘Renowned Hafiz’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v20 p252), Al-Albaani said: ‘Thiqah’ (Silsila Sahiha, v3 p446). Zuhair Abu khathyama: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ (Siar alam alnubala, v11 p489), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p316). Wahab bin Jarir: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p356), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p291). Jarir bin Hazim: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1, p291), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p158). Yunus bin Yazid: Dahabi said: ‘One of the Thabt’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p404), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p351). Al-Zuhari: Dahabi said: ‘The Hafiz of his time’ (Siar alam alnubala, v5 p326), Ibn Hajar said: ‘There is an agreement about his magnificence’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p133). 

Summing up the roles played by Talha, Zubair and Ayesha against Uthman, let us cite the words of al-Mutahar al-Maqdesi who stated in his authority work al-Bada wa al-Tarikh, volume 2 page 124:

وكان أشد الناس طلحة والزبير ومحمد بن أبي بكر وعائشة وخذلته المهاجرون والأنصار وتكلمت عائشة في أمره

Talha, al-Zubair, Muhammad bin Abi Bakr and Ayesha were the most fierce people against him, Muhajreen and Ansar disappointed him and Ayesha spoke ill about him.

Four: Amr bin al-Aas’s role in killing Uthman

Two notorious companions whose Nasibism is proven in the books of history namely Muawiyah and particularly his keep Amr bin al-Aas also played a vital part in agitation against Uthman. Imam Dhahabi records the following following of Ibn Abbas (ra) in ‘Tarikh Islam’ Volume 4 page 94 which he (ra) spoke to Muawiyah and Amr bin al-Aas:

وإن أحق الناس أن لا يتكلم في أمر عثمان لأنتما ، أما أنت يا معاوية فزينت له ما كان يصنع حتى إذا طلب منك نصرك أبطأت عنه وأحببت قتله ، وأما أنت يا عمرو فأضرمت المدينة عليه۔

Ibn Abbas said: ‘… those who do not deserve to talk about Uthman’s issue the most, are both of you, you Muawiya, verily you made his acts seem alluring to him until when he (Uthman) asked you for your support, you let him down and liked him to be killed. And you Amr, you incited the people against him.’

Ibn Abdul Barr has records the reason of the hatred between the two Sahabah namely Uthman and Amr bin al-Aas:

Khalaf bin Qasim – Hassan bin Rasheeq– al-Dalabi – Abu Bakr al-Wajihi – his father – Selh bin Wajih: In the year 25, there was a revolt in the area adjacent to Egypt. Therefore, Amr bin al-Aas captured that area and made those people slaves.
Uthman was ordered to return those slaves who belonged to villages and didn’t take part in the battle. After this Uthman dismissed Amr Ibn Al-Aas from the governorship of Egypt, and made Abdullah ibn Sarah the governor. This was the beginning of hostilities between Uthman and Amr bin al-Aas.

 Al-Isitab, Volume 1 page 368, Biography of Amr bin al Aas

Ibn Athir records in ‘Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh’ Volume 3 page 163:

وخرج عمرو بن العاص إلى منزله بفلسطين وكان يقول : والله إني كنت لألقى الراعي فأحرضه على عثمان ، وأتى عليا وطلحة والزبير فحرضهم على عثمان … ثم مر راكب آخر فسأله قال : قتل عثمان فقال عمرو : أنا أبو عبد الله إذا حككت قرحة نكأتها.

Amr bin al-Aas went to his house in Palestine and he was saying: ‘By Allah! I used to meet the shepherd and incited him against Uthman, I used to go to Ali, Talha and al-Zubair inciting them against Uthman’…then a person passed by and asked: ‘Has Uthman been killed?’ Amr replied: ‘I am Abu Abdullah, I don’t I scratch an ulcer until I remove it.’

Allamah Ibn Abdulbar records in Al-Istiab, Volume 3 page 1041:

عن جده علقمة بن وقاص أن عمرو بن العاص قام إلى عثمان وهو يخطب بالناس فقال : يا عثمان ، إنك قد ركبت بالناس المهامة وركبوها منك ، فتب إلى الله عز وجل وليتوبوا ، قال : فالتفت إليه عثمان فقال : وإنك لهناك يا ابن النابغة ، ثم رفع يديه واستقبل القبلة وقال : أتوب إلى الله ، اللهم إني أول تائب إليك

Alqama bin Waqqas said: ‘Amr bin al-Aas stood in front of Uthman and addressed in front of the people: ‘Oh Uthman! You are despaired from the people and they are despaired from you, so repent before Allah and let them repent.’ Then Uthman looked at him and said: ‘And you, the son of a slut.’ Then he (Uthman) raised his hands and faced the Qibla and said: ‘I repent before Allah, Oh Allah Iam the first one who repent before you.’

Ibn Athir records in Asad al-Ghaba, Volume 4 page 117:

وكان يأتي المدينة أحيانا وكان يطعن على عثمان

“He (Amr) used to visit Madina and criticize Uthman”

Five: Amr bin Badil al-Khazai’s (ra) role in killing Uthman

Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani records about him in his famed work ‘Al-Istiab’ Volume 4 page 606 Translation No. 5781:

Al-Tabarani said: “He is a Sahabi, he is among those who marched against Uthman from Egypt.”
 Al-Istiab, Volume 4 page 606 Translation No. 5781

About his role in the murder of Uthman, Ibn Shabah al-Numairi records in his authority work ‘Tarikh Madina’ Volume 4 page 1303:

حدثنا عفان قال : حدثنا أبو محصن قال : حدثنا حصين بن عبد الرحمن قال : حدثني جهيم قال : أنا شاهد ، دخل عليه عمرو بن بديل الخزاعي , والتجيبي يطعنه أحدهما بمشقص في أوداجه , وعلاه الآخر بالسيف فقتلوه

“Afan – Abu Muhsin – Husain bin Abdulrahman – Juhaim narrated: ‘I witnessed that Amr bin Badil al-Khazai and al-Tejibi entered on him (Uthman), one of them stabbed him with a blade and the other struck him with a sword and they killed him.”

All the narrators of the narration are authentic. Afan bin Muslim: Al-Dahabi said: ‘Hafiz Thabt’ (Tadkirat al-Hufaz, v1, p379), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqa Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib v1, p679), Ibn Haban included him in his book of Thiqa narrators (Al-Thiqat, v8 p522). Abu Muhsin, Husain bin Numair al-Wasti: Al-Dahabi said: ‘Thiqa’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p339), Imam Al-Ejli and Abu Zara said: ‘Thiqa’ (Tahdib al-Kamal v6 p547), Ibn Haban included him in his book of Thiqa narrators (Al-Thiqat, v8 p208). Husain bin Abdulrahman al-Salami: Al-Dahabi said: ‘Thiqa Hujja’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p338), Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: ‘Thiqa’ (al-Elal, v1 p 235), Ibn Haban included him in his book of Thiqa narrators (Al-Thiqat, v6 p210). Juhaim al-Feheri or al-Enzi: Ibn Haban included him in his book of Thiqa narrators (Al-Thiqat, v4 p119). Imam Abu Hatim Al-Razi in al-Jarh wa al-Tadil and Imam Al-Dahabi mentioned him in Tarikh al-Islam, v5, p384 and did not record any negative remarks about him which means that his narrations are acceptable.

Six:  Sahabi Abdulrehman bin Udays al-Balwi’s (ra) role in killing Uthman

Ibn Atheer in Asad al-Ghaba, Volume 3 page 309 records the biography of this Sahabi in the following manner:

Abdulrahman bin Udays bin Amr bin Ubaid bin Kalab bin Dahman bin Ghanam bin Hamim bin Duhal bin Hani bin Bali. This is his lineage, Ibn Manda and Abu Naeem, he is a Balawi, he had companionship, he witnessed Bayat al-Ridwan, he gave baya during it, and he was the commander of the army which marched from Egypt to besige Uthman bin Afan when he was murdered.

Imam Ibn Sa’ad records in Tabaqat al-Kubra, Volume 7 page 509:

عبد الرحمن بن عديس البلوي من صحب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسمع منه وكان فيمن رحل إلى عثمان حين حصر حتى قتل وكان رأسا فيهم

Abdulrehman bin Udays al-Balawi was among those who accompanied the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and heard from him and he was among those who marched to siege Uthman until he (Uthman) got killed, he (Abdulrahman) was a commander among them

In Volume 3 page 71 Imam Ibn Sa’ad records the massive role of this Sahabi against Uthman:

كان المصريون الذين حصروا عثمان ستمائة رأسهم عبد الرحمن بن عديس البلوي وكنانة بن بشر بن عتاب الكندي وعمروبن الحمق الخزاعي

“The Egyptians who attacked Uthman were 600 and were lead by Abdulrehman ibn Udays Al-Balawi and Amr ibn Hamiq Al-Khuzai” 

Imam Ibn Abdul Barr records in ‘Al-Istiab’ Volume 2 page 411:

عبد الرحمن بن عديس البلوي مصري شهد الحديبية ۔۔۔ ممن بايع تحت الشجرة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ أبو عمر هو كان الأمير على الجيش القادمين من مصر إلى المدينة الذين حصروا عثمان وقتلوه

Abdulrehman ibn Udays Al-Balawi witnessed Hudaybia and was one of those that gave allegiance under the tree. Abu Umar said: ‘He was the head of the army that attacked Uthman and killed him’. 

Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani in  Al-Isaba, Volume 4 page 281 Biography No. 5167 records:

وقال بن البرقي والبغوي وغيرهما كان ممن بايع تحت الشجرة ۔۔۔ وقال بن يونس بايع تحت الشجرة ۔۔۔ وقال بن يونس بايع تحت الشجرة وشهد فتح مصر واختط بها وكان من الفرسان ثم كان رئيس الخيل التي سارت من مصر إلى عثمان في الفتنة

“Ibn Al-Barqi, Al-Baghawi and others said that he was of those who gave Baya (allegiance) under the tree… Ibn Yunus said that he was of those who gave baya under the tree, witnessed the victory of Egypt and participated in it and were among the knights and then he became the General of the Army that attacked Uthman.”

Similarly Ibn Hajar Asqalani records in  Tajeel al-Manfa, page 471:

وذكر في ترجمة عبدالرحمن بن عديس البلوي أن أباثور روى عنه وقال هما صحابيان

“He (Ibn Yunus) mentioned him in the biography of Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi and said that Abu Thur narrated from him and both are Sahabi”

We learn in ‘Al Bidayah wa al Nihaya’ Volume 7 page 179 Dhikr Maqatil Uthman:

“After killing Uthman, his murderers tried to remove his head, the women began to shout and beat their faces, two wives of Uthman namely Naila and Um al-Baneen and his daughters were amongst them. Ibn Udays said: ‘Leave Uthman’. Thus, they left him and they looted whatever was there in the house.”

Dahak states in Ahaad wa Mathaani, Volume 2 page 472:

يزيد بن عمرو المعاقري قال سمعت اباثور يقول قدم علينا عبدالرحمن بن عديس البلوي رضي الله عنه تعالى وكان ممن بايع تحت الشجرة

Yazid bin Amr al-Meaqeri said: ‘I heard Abu Thur saying that Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi was among those who gave baya under the tree’

Ibn Asakir records about him in Tarikh Dimashq, Volume 35 page 107:

له صحبة وهو ممن بايع تحت الشجرة

“He is a Sahabi and he was among those who gave baya under the tree”


We the Shia of Imam Ali (as) believe only the pious Sahaba deserve respect whilst the corrupt ones should be condemned. The Nawasib in order to prove the ‘sancity’ of all Sahabah have always brought the following verse of Holy Quran before Shias:

Certainly Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity on them and rewarded them with a near victory (48:18:)

These Nawasib have always tried to prove that the Sahabah who gave allegiance under the tree are revered and cannot be criticized let alone cursed. Now, we would like to ask the Nawasib:

‘If this verse guranteees the noble characters of Sahaba, then what position will you hold about the Sahabi Abdulrehman ibn Udays who also gave allegiance under the tree and subsequently led the agitation movement against another Sahabi and killed him?’

This should provide the opportunity to the open minded ones amongst the Ahle Sunnah to reassess the illogical and baseless belief coined by their Ulema, namely ‘each and every Sahabi is virtuous’ and instead accept that some of the Sahabah were indeed involved in all sorts of sins.

Seven: Sahabi Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai’s (ra) role in killing Uthman

About Amr bin al-Hamiq, Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani records:

“Amr Ibn Al Hamiq, Ibn Kahil and they also call him Ibn Kahin, Ibn Habeeb Al Khuzai, a Sahabi who lived in Kufa then in Egypt, he was killed during the caliphate of Muawiya”
 Taqreeb al Tahdeeb, page 420 Translation No. 5017

Imam Ibn Saad records:

Muhammad bin Umar – Abdulrahman bin Abi al-Zinad – Abu Jaffar al-Qarei said: ‘The Egyptians who surrounded Uthman were 600, their leader was Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi, Kanana bin Bashar bin Etab, Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khuzai…”
 Tabaqat Ibn Saad, Volume 3 page 71

Muhammad bin Umar al-Waqidi. Abdulrahman bin Abi al-Zinad: Dahabi said: ‘His hadith is Hasan’ (Siar alam al-nubala, v8 p167), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-tahdib, v1 p569). Abu Jaffar al-Qarei: Dahabi said:‘One of the celebrities…Ibn Moin authenticated him’ (Mizan al-Etidal, v4 p511), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p376).

Prior to this, Ibn Saad has recorded:

Muhammad bin Umar – Ibn Juraij and Daud bin Abdulrahman al-Ataar - Amr bin Dinar – Jabir: When the Egyptians came to Uthman from Egypt, they dismount at DeKhashaba. Uthman called Muhammad bin Salamah and said to him: ‘Go to them and prevent them from coming to me and give them what pleases them and tell them that I am going to implememt their demands, and handle them in the issues which they talk about.’ Then Muhammad bin Salamah went to them at DeKhashaba. Jabir said: Uthman sent with him fifty knights of the Ansar and I was amongst them and their leaders were four: Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi, Sawdan bin Himran al-Muradi, Ibn Al-Baya and Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khuzai”
 Tabaqat Ibn Saad, Volume 3 page 65

Muhammad bin Umar al-Waqidi. Daud bin Abdulrahman al-Ataar: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p381), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p281). Amr bin Dinar: Dahabi said: ‘Imam’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p75), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah Thabt’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p734). Jabir bin Abdullah, a Sahabi.

One of the most beloved scholars of Nawasib namely Ibn Katheer testifies as follows in his biography of this Sahabi:

وفيها‏:‏ كانت وفاة عمرو بن الحمق بن الكاهن الخزاعي، أسلم قبل الفتح وهاجر‏.‏ وقيل‏:‏ إنه إنما أسلم عام حجة الوداع‏.‏ وورد في حديث أن رسول الله دعا له أن يمتعه الله بشبابه، فبقي ثمانين سنة لا يُرى في لحيته شعرة بيضاء‏.‏ ومع هذا كان أحد الأربعة الذين دخلوا على عثمان

The death of Amr bin al-Hamiq bin al-Kahin Khazai: He accepted Islam before victory of Mecca and performed the migration, and some say that he accepted Islam in the year of Hajjatul Wida. And in a hadith, it is narrated that the Holy Prophet (s) prayed for him that ‘May Allah grants you the prime of life’. Thus he lived upto 80 years and there was not a single grey hair in his beard. He was one of four people who had entered the house of Uthman.
 Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah, Volume 8 page 48

Moreover, Ibn Katheer records the method through which Amr bin al-Hamiq killed Uthman:

“Ibn Asakir has narrated from Aun Ibn Kanana that Kanana bin Bashar hit a iron rod on Uthman’s forehead and on his head thus he fell on his side and after he fell, Sodan bin Hamran Maradi hit him with a sword and killed him. Amr bin Al-Hamiq jumped on him and sat on his chest, at that time he was taking his final breaths, thus he hit him nine times with a spear. Narrators says that three attempts were missed while six of them hit him at the time when he was lying dead in front of me”
 Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah (Arabc), Volume 7 page 208

Imam of Ahle Sunnah Ibn Habban in his book of authentic narrators namely Al-Thuqat, Volume 2 page 256 testifies:

“700 men marched from Egypt lead by Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi, Amr bin al-Hamq al-Khuzai, Kanana bin Bashar bin Etab al-Kandi and Sawudan bin Himran al-Muradi”
 Al-Thuqat, Volume 2 page 256

Though there shouldn’t be any doubt about the role of this Sahabi in the murder of Uthman, as a final dose for the stubborn Nawasib who absolve Sahabah form the murder of Uthman, let us now present the testimony their Imam Muawiya according to whom the Sahabi Amr bin al-Hamiq murdered Uthman and hence Muawiyah killed Amr bin al-Hamiq during his (Muawiya’s) reign. Tabari records:

“When the latter saw Amr bin al-Hamiq, he recognized him, and wrote to Mu’awiyah with this information. Mu’awiyah wrote back ‘Amr claimed that he stabbed Uthman bin Affan nine times with a dagger that he had with him, so stab him nine times just as he stabbed Uthman. At that, Amr was taken out and stabbed nine times, and he died from the first or second blow”
 History of Tabari, Volume 18 page 137

The murder of a companion Amr bin al-Hamiq by Muawiya has put the present day Nawasib in deep trouble, it’s a thorn that they can neither swallow nor spit since these people claim that the Sahaba were innocent of the agitation against Uthman and his murder while Muawiyah testified that a companion Amr bin Hamiq was actually involved in the murder of Uthman. The Nawasib are left with only two options, they either:

accept that the Sahaba were involved in the agitation and murder of Uthman


Muawiyah attributed the murder of Uthman to a Sahabi Amr b. Hamiq and unjustly murdered him.

This will again make them realize that how foolish they have been to coin the basless belief of ‘each and every Sahabi is to be respected’ and since we Shias alhamdulilah have no connection with any such man made belief, we are hence free to respect those among the Sahabah who deserve to be respected and criticize and condemn those among them, who committed crimes to this effect!

Eight: Sahabi Jundab bin Ka’ab al-Azdi’s role in killing Uthman

Imam of Wahabis Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab in his book Mukhtasir Seerat ul Rasool, page 226 stated:

وفيها: ذكر أهل العراق عثمان بالسوء وتكلموا فيه بكلام خبيث في مجلس سعيد بن عامر فكتب في أمرهم إلى عثمان. فكتب يأمره بإجلائهم إلى الشام. فلما قدموا على معاوية أكرمهم وتألفهم. ونصحهم. فأجابه متكلمهم بكلام فيه شناعة. ثم نصحهم فتمادوا في غيهم  وجهالتهم وشرهم. فنفاهم معاوية عن الشام، وكانوا عشرة: كميل بن زياد، والأشتر النخعي – مالك بن يزيد -، وعلقمة بن قيس النخعي، وثابت بن قيس النخعي، وجندب بن زهير العامري، وجندب بن كعب الأزدي، وعروة بن الجعد، وعمرو بن الحمق الخزاعي، وصعصعة بن صوحان، وأخوه زيد بن صوحان، وابن الكواء. 

And in it ( that year ) contained that the people of Iraq mentioned Uthman with evil and they said evil words about him (Uthman) in the assembly hall of Saeed bin A’amir, So he (Saeed) wrote to Uthman about them, and then he (Uthman) wrote to expel them to Damascus . after that when they went to Muawiya, he (Muawyia) was generous to them, honored them and even advised them, then one of the speakers repelled with words that contained some verbal abuse and then (Muawyia) advised them but they transgressed with sin, ignorance and evil thus Muawiya denied them from entering into Damascus and they were ten in number viz Kumail bin Ziyad, Ashtar al-Nakhai, Malik bin Yazid, Alqama bin Qais al-Nakhai, Thabit bin Qais al-Nakhai, Jundab bin Zuhair al-Aamari, Jundab bin Ka’ab al-Azdi,Urwa bin al-Ja’ad, Amr bin al-Hamiq al-Khazai, Sausa bin Sohan, his brother Zaid bin Sohan and Ibn al-Akwa.

So we learnt that the great founding Imam of Wahabi cult mentioned the roles of Amr bin al-Hamiq and Jundab bin Ka’ab al-Azdi in campaigning against Uthman. Since we already have discussed the matter of Amr bin al-Hamiq just above, therefore let us now just reveal the actual identity of other individual namely Jundab bin Ka’an al-Azdi who has been alleged to have lodged campaign against Uthman and were one of the sinners, ignorant (Jahil) and evil ones and to a great surprise for the naive Sunni masses to whom their clergy tell sweet tales about Sahaba, this individual was also amongst one of the Sahaba of Holy Prophet (s), see Al-Isabah Volume 2 page 252. 

The point which once again arises here is that according to the Wahabis, one who slanders a Sahabi is Zindeeq or Kafir, yet their own founding father has declared two Sahaba to be sinners, ignorant and evil ones.

Nine: Sahabi Kuraib bin Abraha’s role in the murder of Uthman

Ibn Hajar Asqalani records in Al-Isaba, Volume 5 page 477:

كريب بن ابرهة الأصبحي من أصحاب النبي

“Kuraib bin Abraha al-Asbahi, amongst the companions of the Prophet”

Imam Ibn Habban in Al-Thuqat, Volume 3 page 357 and Ibn Asakir in Tarikh Dimashq, Volume 50 page 112 records:

كريب بن ابرهة الأصبحي يقال إن له صحبة

“Kuraib bin Abraha al-Asbahi, it has been said that he had companionship”

Previously we mentioned that Muawiyah killed Sahabi Amr bin al-Hamiq for the blood of Uthman, as for Sahabi Kuraib bin Abraha, he was imprisoned by Muawiyah as recorded by Allamah Yaqut al-Hamawi in his authority work Mujam al-buldan, Volume 2 page 158:

كان معاوية يجبس في موضع منه من يظفر به ممن ينبز بقتل عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه ، منهم محمد بن أبي حذيفة وكريب بن أبرهة

“Mu’awiya used to imprison whoever he arrested of those who were accused of killing Uthman, and amongst them were Muhammad bin Abi Hudayfa and Kuraib bin Abraha”


Ten: Sahabi Muhammad bin Abi Hudayfa’s (ra) role in killing Uthman

Ibn Abdul Barr records about him in Al-Istiab, Volume 3 page 1369:

“He was born in Habasha during the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)”

Imam Dhahabi states in Siar alam al-nubala, Volume 3 page 479:

وله رؤية

“He saw the Prophet (s)”

Khairuddin Zarkali records in Al-Alaam, Volume 6 page 79:

“A Sahabi”

We read in ‘Al-Istiab’ Volume 3 page 1396:

وكان محمد بن أبي حذيفة أشد الناس تأليبا على عثمان وكذلك كان عمرو بن العاص مذ عزله عن مصر يعمل حيله في التأليب والطعن على عثمان

Muhammad bin Abi Hudayfa was one of those who provoked people against Uthman and so was Amr bin al-Aas, since he (Uthman) sacked him from Egypt, he started to play tricks to provoke people against Uthman.

Shaykh Shu’aib al-Arnaut records in the margin of Imam Dhahabi’s famed book ‘Siar alam al-Nubala’ Volume 1 page 165:

محمد بن أبي حذيفة….وكان من أشد الناس تأليبا عليه. خدعه معاوية وسجنه

“Muhammad bin Abi Hudayfa… he was one of those who incited the people against Uthman, Mu’awiya cheated him (Ibn Abi Hudayfa) and put him in jail.”

We read about him in Usdul Ghaba, Volume 1 page 992:

Abu Naeem said: ‘He was among those who entered on Uthman while he was surrounded’


Eleven: Sahabi Jahjha bin Saeed Al-Ghaffari’s (ra) role in killing Uthman

Here we have an another ‘esteemed’ Sahabi who witnessed the alliagience under the tree. Imam Dahabi records in Tareekh Islam, Volume 3 page 560:

له صحبة ، شهد بيعة الرضوان

“He had companionship (with the prophet), he witnessed the baya of Ridhwan under the tree”

Imam Ibn Hajar likewise records in Al-Isaba, Volume 1 page 621:

شهد بيعة الرضوان

“He witnessed the allegiance of Ridhwan”

Imam Ibn Abdul Barr also records in al-Istiab, Volume 1 page 268:

شهد بيعة الرضوان تحت الشجرة

“He witnessed the allegiance of Ridhwan under the tree”

And this same ‘revered’ Sahabi Jahjha bin Saeed Ghafari was also among those Sahabah who agitated against Uthman. Ibn Katheer records in Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah (Urdu), Vol 7 page 346:

“On Friday, Uthman was standing on a pulpit and in his hands he was carrying the staff of Holy Prophet (s) on which He (as) used to lean whilst standing in the same way that after Him (as), Abu Bakr and Umar used to lean whilst standing. A man amongst those people came to Uthman and abused him and brought him down from the pulpit and on that day people felt greedy for him, as Waqidi stated that Usama bin Zaid narrated from Yahyah bin Abdulrehman bin Haatib from his father: ‘I was watching Uthman as he preached leaning on the Prophet’s staff- the staff on which (the Prophet), Abu Bakr, and Umar used to lean while they preached, suddenly Jahjha stated to Uthman: ‘O Nathal! Get down off this pulpit! Seizing the staff, Jahjah broke it over his right knee. A wood splinter pierced (the knee), and the wound remained open for so long that it became infected with gangrene, and I saw it swarming with maggots. Uthman descended from the pulpit and was taken away. He ordered the staff to be repaired, and it was bound together with a strip of iron. From that day until he was besieged and killed, Uthman went out only one or two times.
Ibn Jareer stated that Ahmed bin Ibrahim narrated from Abdullah bin Urais who narrated from Ubaidullah bin Umar from Naf’e that Jahjha Ghaffari grabbed the staff Uthman was carrying and broke it by putting it on his knee and he got cancer at that place.”

 Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah (Arabic), Vol 7 page 197

Ibn Shabah al-Numairi (d. 262 H) likewise recorded in Tarikh Madina, Volume 3 page 1110:

حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل قال ، حدثنا يوسف بن الماجشون قال ، أخبرني عقبة بن مسلم المدني : أن آخر خرجة خرجها عثمان يوم جمعة وعليه حلة حبرة مصفرا رأسه ولحيته بورس ، قال : فما خلص إلى المنبر حتى ظن أن لن يخلص ، فلما استوى على المنبر حصبه الناس ، وقام رجل من بني غفار يقال له الجهجاه فقال : والله لنغربنك إلى جبل الدخان

Musa bin Ismail – Yusuf bin al-Majeshon – Utbah bin Muslim that the last time Uthman came out (from his house) was on Friday and he was wearing a nice dress and had dyed his hair and beard. When he reached the pulpit and stood on it, the people stoned him and a man from Bani Ghafar called Jahjah said to him: ‘By Allah, we will exile you to the mountain of Dukhan.’

Musa bin Ismail: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p301, Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p220). Yusuf bin al-Majeshon: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p402), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p347). Uqbah bin Muslim: Dahabi: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v2, p30), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1, p683). Some scholars have mentioned ‘Utbah’ bin Muslim instead of ‘Uqbah’ bin Muslim, he also is an authentic narrator as Dahabi said: ‘He is amongst the Thiqah narrators’ (Tarikh al-Islam, v8 p482), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p654).

Imam Ibn Abi Shayba (d. 235 H) records in his Al-Musanaf, Volume 7 page 488:

حدثنا إبن إدريس عن عبيد الله بن عمر عن نافع أن رجلا يقال له جهجاه تناول عصى كانت في يد عثمان فكسرها بركبته

‘Ibn Idris – Ubaidullah bin Umar – Naf’e that a man called Jahjah took Uthman’s staff and broke it on his knee.’

Abdullah ibn Idris: Dahabi said: ‘Sheikh ul Islam’ (Siar alam alnubala, v9 p42), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p477). Ubaidullah bin Umar: Dahabi said: ‘Thabt’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p685). Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tadib, v1 p637). Nafee: Dahabi said: ‘Imam of Tabees’ (Al-Kashif, v2 p314). Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p239).

Twelve: Sahabi Sa’d bin Abi Waqas’s role in killing Uthman

Imam Ibn Jareer Tabari records:

“According to Muhammad b.’Umar [al-Waqidi] – Muhammad b. Muslim – Musa bin Uqbah – Abu Habibah: On the day Uthman was killed, I saw Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas go in to him. Then he came out, saying “To God we belong and to Him we shall return,” on account of what he saw at (Uthmand’s) door. Marwan said to him, “Now you are sorry, but you have slain him”.
 History of al-Tabari, Volume 15 page 197

Thirteen: Sahabi Jabalah bin ‘Amr al-Saidi role in killing Uthman

Ibn Abdul Barr records about him in al-Istiab, Volume 1 page 236:

من فقهاء الصحابة

“One of the jurist Sahaba”

Ibn Hajar Asqalani records about him in al-Isaba, Volume 1 page 566:

شهد أحدا

“He witnessed Uhud (battle)”

Now to know his role in the murder of Uthman, we read in History of al-Tabari that:

محمد بن عمر وحدثني محمد بن صالح بن عبيدالله بن رافع بن نقاحة عن عثمان بن الشريد قال مر عثمان على جبلة بن عمرو الساعدي وهو بفناء داره ومعه جامعة فقال يا نعثل والله لأقتلنك ولأحملنك على قلوص جرباء ولأخرجنك إلى حرة النار ثم جاءه مرة أخرى وعثمان على المنبر فأنزله عنه

According to Muhammad b. Umar (al-Waqidi)—-Muhammad bin Saleh—Ubaydallah b. Rafi’ b. Naqakhah——Uthman b. al-Sharid:
Uthman passed Jabalah bin ‘Amr al-Saidi as he sat in his courtyard holding a rope. Jabalah said, “You Nathal. By God, I shall kill you. I shall carry you off on a scab-covered camel and send you to blazing fire.” Another time, when Uthman was I standing on the pulpit, Jabalah forced him to get off.

We further read:

It was related to me by Muhammad (al-Waqidi) — Abi Bakr b. Ismail — his father -Amir b. Sa’d: The first man who dared to insult Uthman was Jabalah b. Amr al-Sa’idi. Once while he was sitting among his kinsmen holding a rope in his hand, ‘Uthman passed by him or greeted them as he was passing by, and they greeted him in return. Then Jabalah said, “Why do you answer a man who did such-and-such a thing?” Jabalah then approached Uthman and said, “By God, I will throw this rope around your neck unless you abandon your personal entourage” “What entourage,” asked Uthman? “By God, I do not choose favorites among the people.” (Jabalah) answered, “Marwan, and Muawiyah, and ‘Abdallah b. Amir b. Kurayz, and Abdullah b. Sa’d-all of these you have favored. Among them are men who are condemned in the Qur’an, men whose blood the Messenger of God has declared lawful.” Uthman departed and the people have continued to talk spitefully about him to this day.
 History of al-Tabari, Volume 15 page 182

Muhammad bin Umar al-Waqidi. Abu Bakr bin Ismail: Dahabi said: ‘Imam, Muhadith’ (Siar alam alnubala, v16 p389), Al-Burqani said: ‘Thiqah Thiqah’ (Tarikh Baghdad, v2 p54). Ismail al-Waraq: Dahabi said: ‘Hujja’ while Darqutni said: ‘Thiqah’ (Siar alam alnubala, v15, p74). Amer bin Saad: Dahabi said: ‘Thiqah’ (Al-Kashif, v1 p522), Ibn Hajar said: ‘Thiqah’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p460).

Fourteen: Niyar bin Iyadh

This reference is especially for those present day Nawasib who try to paint a happy picture and want to make their naive readers believe that there was unity amongst all the Sahaba about Uthman being the innocent and rightful Khalifa, who gave their complete support behind him. For such ignorant Nawasib, we would like to present the stance of a Sahabi namely Niyar bin Iyadh from Tarikh Tabari, thereafter we will leave it to our prudent readers to draw a rational conclusion from this episode:

(The rebels) surrounded Uthman’s house, but he refused insisted on retaining his office, and sent to assemble his retainers and close associates. One of the Prophet’s companions, a venerable old man named Niyar bin Iyadh, arose and called out: ‘Uthman!’. Uthman look down at him from the roof of his house, (Niyar) reminded him of God and implored him in God’s name to dissociate himself from (his evil associates). And while he was speaking, one of Uthman’s associates shot and killed him with an arrow. Uthman’s opponents claimed that the man who shot him was Kathir bin al-Salt al-Kindi, and at this they said to Uthman, ‘Turn the murderer of Niayr bin Iyadh over to us that we may kill him in retaliation’
 History of al-Tabari, Volume 15 page 203

Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani echoed the same:

Niyar bin Iyadh al-Aslami, Tabari mentioned and said: ‘He is a companion of Allah’s messenger (pbuh), he is among those who spoke to Uthman when he was surrounded and made an appeal in the name of Allah and some of Uthman’s companions killed him’
 Al-Isaba, Volume 6 page 483 Biography 8842

Fifteen: The role of Abu Al Hasan Maazani and his colleagues from the Ansar states

Ibn Abi Sheibah narrated that Ibn Sireen said, “Zaid bin Thabit entered upon Uthman and said, ‘Here are the Ansars at the door.’ And the Ansars said, ‘If you wish for us to be Ansar [helpers] to Allah twice.’ Uthman said, ‘No fighting.’ ” [Al-Musnaf, vol.8, Book of Afflictions, p.682, with authentic narrators]

Note that no one amongst Ansar is mentioned by name just a general comment is cited. For the benefit of Abu Sulaiman allow us to expand on the true position of the Ansar at the time of Uthman’s death. We read in ‘Al Istiab’ Volume 4 page 48, Dhikr Abu al Hasan Maazani:

أبو حسن المازني بن عبد ۔۔۔ له صحبة يقال إنه ممن شهد العقبة وبدرا ۔۔۔ وأبو حسن هذا هو القائل لزيد بن ثابت حين قال يوم الدار : يا معشر الأنصار كونوا أنصار الله عز و جل مرتين فقال له أبو حسن : لا والله لا نطيعك فنكون كما قال الله تعالى : ” أطعنا سادتنا وكبراءنا فأضلونا السبيلا ” . الأحزاب : 67 .

“Abu Hasan Al-Maazani bin Abd Amr was a companion of Prophet Muhammad (s), and he was one of the companions present in Aqba and Badr… Zaid bin Thabit, on the day of Uthman’s murder said to the Ansar from Madina that, “Shall we become the helpers of Allah for a second time?”. He (Mazani) replied, “No! By Allah we won’t follow your lead, for if we do, we will be counted amongst those who on the Day of Judgment shall proclaim that our leaders misguided us”.
 Al Istiab, Volume 1 page 520 []

Note, that this Sahabi refuses to side with Uthman – he did not deem him to be a victim, on the contrary he made it clear that to side with him would lead to punishment on the Day of Judgment for following a misguided Imam. Also of note is that Zaid is addressing the Ansar and Abu al Hasan Maazani replies on their behalf – the fact that no other Ansar opposed his comment, supports the notion that the Ansar had taken a lead role in opposing Uthman . Perhaps Abu Sulaiman could answer this question for us:

‘If all the Sahaba are indeed like stars, and following them would take us to salvation, then can we not also appreciate and support the claim advanced by Mazani against Uthman?’

The Muhajir, Ansar and other faithful living in Madina killed Uthman

We read in Al-Sunnah al-Khalal:

 قال سفيان : ” أهل المدينة لما وثبوا على عثمان فقتلوه ، قال لهم سعد : أمعاوية خير عندكم من عثمان ؟ قالوا : لا ، بل عثمان ، قال : فلا تقتلوه ، قالوا : نكله إلى الله ، قال : كذبة والله ” .

Sufyan said: When the people of Madina assaulted and killed Uthman, Saad said to them: ‘Is Muawyia better than Uthman in your opinion?’. They replied: ‘No, Uthman is better’. He (Saad) said: ‘Then don’t kill him’. They replied: ‘We will let him in God’s custody’. He said: ‘By God it’s a lie’.

As per the testimony of the Sahabi Saad ibn Abi Waqqas and Madinan resident, he tried to convince the people of Madina to desist from killing Uthman, but they did not heed his words. The important thing from the narrative of Sufyan al-Thawri is those that killed Uthman were not “outsiders” rather they were fellow city dwellers of Uthman!

We read in Iqd al Fareed, Volume 2 page 92:

وقال أبو الحسن: أقبل أهلُ مصر عليهم عبدُ الرحمن بن عُديس البَلويّ، وأهلُ البصرة عليهم حَكيم بن جَبلة العَبدي، وأهل الكوفة عليهم الأشتر – واسمه مالك بن الحارث النّخعي – في أمر عُثمان حتى قَدِموا المدينة.

“Abu al-Hassan said: The people of Egypt came who were led by Abdulrahman bin Udays al-Balawi, the people of Basrah came who were lead by Hakeem bin Jabalah al-Abdi, the people of Kufa came who were led by al-Ashtar to Madina for Uthman’s issue”.

We have already revealed the esteem rank of Sahabi Abdulrehman bin Udays al-Balwi among Ahle-Sunnah, as for Hakeem bin Jabalah al-Abdi, his biography has been recorded by Khaiurddin Zarkali as a Sahabi in his book Al-Alaam, Volume 2 page 269.

Of relevance is the fact that we also learn in Tabaqat, Volume 3 page 68 that Yazeed’s forces ransacked Madina to avenge the murder of Uthman. If the Egyptians were involved in the murder then the people of Madina were even more culpable, which is why Abu Sulaiman’s Imam Yazeed deemed it necessary to attack Madina. We read in Sharh Ibn al Hadeed page 164 that:

“The companions and non-companions, who were present in Medina, wrote letters to others saying If you want to participate in Jihad, come to Madina, for the Khalifa is destroying Islam. Hence the Khalifa must be removed”.

We read in Tareekh al Waqidi page 306:

Ibn Umar said By Allah; we have two grudges in relation to Uthman’s murder. One against those who didn’t help him and the second against those that killed him.


Umar’s son’s testimony is very important. He identifies two groups of culprit’s deserters and killers and from the earlier references it is clear that the Sahaba fit in both categories. This quote highlights Ibn Umar’s opinion that those who did not support and protect Uthman are sinful in the same way as those that killed him were sinful.

The believers murdered Uthman

We read the following words of Uthman:

Roh bin Abada – Uthman bin Etab – Khalid al-Rabee said: Uthman raised both his hands and prayed: ‘O Allah, your faithful ones (mominoon) killed me’’
 Al Tabaqat Al Kubra, Volume 3 page 82
 Al-Dur al-Manthur, Volume 3 page 559 Commentary of Al-Araaf, verse 144

All of the narrators are Thiqah according to Imam Ibn Habban, Rouh bin Ubada (al-Thuqat, v8 p243), Uthman bin Etab al-Rasebi (al-Thuqat, v7 p199), Khalid al-Rabee (al-Thuqat, v6 p252).

In a case, the victim’s testimony is very important and crucial. Uthman made it clear that he was being killed by momin (believers) and never pointed out any un-Islamic element in the agitation against him as the present day Nawasib would have us believe. It has been centuries that Nawasib do not waste a minute to cite the verse 8:74 in order to prove that Sahabah have been declared as Mominoon in Quran thus everyone should respect and follow them, yet we read the testimony of Uthman that the Mominoon killed him!

Uthman was killed by his own Governors / Military men

We read in Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, Volume 1 page 20:

وكان امراء جنوده معاوية ابن ابي سفيان عامل الشام وسعد بن ابي وقاص عامل الكوفة وبعده الوليد بن عقبة وسعيد بن العاص وعبدالله بن عامر عامل البصرة وعبدالله بن سعد بن ابي سرح عامل مصر وكلهم خذلوه ورفضوه حتى اتى قدره عليه وقتل مظلوما في داره

‘These people were the governors and generals of his armies: The governor of Syria was Muawiya ibn Sufyan, The Governor of Hijaz province in Kufa was Saad Ibn Abi Waqas, Basra’s Governor was Abdullah bin Aamir and the General was Walid bin Uqba, Abdullah bin Saarh was the Governor of Egypt. These governors let down and abandoned him till he was murdered in his house’
 Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, Volume 1 page 20

The above mentioned figures are great Sahaba in the eyes of the Ahle Sunnah wa al Jamaah. One needs to also appreciate that Basra, Kufa and Egypt housed large armies, and the killers of Uthman came from this same area. Were the governors of these areas so naive that they had no idea that hordes of men were making a march towards the Khalifa in order to kill him? Was it not their duty to notify the Khalifa and quash the machinations of these individuals?

If the Governors did not try to protect Uthman then they are at fault. If Uthman refused to accept any help for the governors, then Uthman committed suicide, and this cannot constitute martyrdom.

Why did Uthman not defend himself? states

 Salamah bin Abdulrahman said that Abu Qutadah Al-Ansari along with another man from Al-Ansar entered upon Uthman while he was surrounded. Abu Qutadah asked for the permission to go to Hajj, and Uthman gave them the permission. The two men asked, “What should we do if these people attacked you?” Uthman answered, “Be with the majority.” The two men asked again, “What if the majority was with these people?” Uthman answered, “Stay with the majority, wherever it is.” Then the two men left Uthman’s room, and when they were about to leave the house, they saw Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali entering. So they followed Al-Hasan wanting to know what Al-Hasan wanted. When Al-Hasan entered upon Uthman , he said, “O’ Commander of the Faithful! I am under your command, so order me as you wish.” Uthman answered, “My dear brother’s son! Go back, and stay in your home until Allah carries out His order. I do not need the shedding of blood.” [Musnad Ahmed, Virtues of the Companions, #753] Ibn Abi Sheibah narrated in his Musnad that Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr said, “I said to Uthman at those days, ‘Come out and fight them! Allah had given victory to people with less than your men, and I swear by Allah that it is lawful to fight them.’ But Uthman refused.” [Musnaf Abi Sheibah, vol.8, Book of Affliction]. In another version of the same story, Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr said, “Allah have made it lawful for you to fight them!” and Uthman answered, “No, by Allah I will never fight them.” [Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad, vol.3, p.70]. Also in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’ad, “And the son of Omar wore his shield twice at that day and held his sword. However, Uthman ordered him to leave the house for fear of being killed.” [Ibid]Al-Khayyat narrated that Abu Hurayrah said to Uthman , “Today, to be killed with you is a nice thing.” But Uthman answered him, “I order you to leave the house!” [Tareekh Khaleefah Al-Khayyat, p.147, with authentic narrators]. Ibn Abi Sheibah narrated that Ibn Sireen said, “Zaid bin Thabit entered upon Uthman and said, ‘Here are the Ansars at the door.’ And the Ansars said, ‘If you wish for us to be Ansar [helpers] to Allah twice.’ Uthman said, ‘No fighting.’” [Al-Musnaf, vol.8, Book of Afflictions, p.682, with authentic narrators]

If we are to accept all of these traditions then we are to believe that the Sahaba had offered assistance and protection from his evil opponents, but his response was to:

  • Return to their homes
  • Not fight / cause bloodshed

Whilst Gandhi would have been proud of this type of pacifism, it is clear that if we are indeed to accept this, then it means Uthman rejected pledges of support by the Sahaba. If so, why? Islam tells us to protect our livelihood and ourselves by any means possible, failure to do so constitutes suicide, which is a sin. If Uthman stopped the companions from helping him, then it was suicide on his part. Protecting oneself is a must, that is why Prophet Muhammad (s) left Mecca for Medina, this being the case why did Uthman fail to adopt any steps to protect his life?

Let us think of the facts, we are talking about an individual who:

  • has many sons,
  • is from a very strong/ powerful family
  • has many servants and soldiers to protect him,
  • is also incidentally the Caliph, of all the Muslims and who commands authority over the faithful
  • has a governor in all the provinces each of whom have large armies that can come at anytime.

Hadhrath Uthman was fortunate enough to have all these cards stacked in his favor. Despite this, then why did he not try to protect himself? After all it was not a sudden thing, the siege of Uthman’s residence went on for many days. He was kept under house arrest for fifty days and then killed in broad daylight, only two options remain:

  • he committed suicide; or:
  • Those present in Madina, (Sahaba, Tabieen etc) were blameworthy, for having failed to assist him in his hour of need.


Did Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn (as) protect Uthman ?

We the Shi’a do not believe that our Imams had been sent to protect Uthman, in fact Tabari tells us that Imam Ali (as) had distanced himself from Uthman – he wanted nothing further to do with him.

As evidence we have the testimony of Imam ‘Ali (as) in his response to one of Mu’awiya’s letters prior to the Battle of Sifeen. We read in Ahle Sunnah’s authority work Akhbar al Tawal, Volume 1 page 163 that Imam Ali (as) wrote to Mu’awiya stating:

Then he (Ali) wrote: ‘In the name of Allah the beneficent the merciful, from the slave of God, Ali the Commander of the Believers to Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan:

Kaulani has brought your letter to me. You have written that I deserted Uthman and incited people against him. I did no such thing, when the people became dissatisfied with the Khalifa, some withdrew support from him, while others killed him, while I remained confined to my home and kept myself aloof from his affairs, unless if you want to accuse me falsely. Then do what ever you wish, and about your demand to submit you the killers (of Uthman), I don’t agree with that, because I know that you demand for that in sake to reach to your purpose, and you don’t seek the revenge for (Uthman’s) blood. I swear if you didn’t retreat from your error and dissension, the punishment of the one who perform error and dissension will be on you. Wa salam’.
 Akhbar al Tawal, Volume 1 page 163

This being the case why would he have sent his sons to protect a man that he no longer wanted anything to do with! states:

Jabbir bin Abdullah said, “‘Ali sent a letter to Uthman saying, ‘I have 500 men, so give me the permission to defend you from these people, otherwise things would happen that they would kill you.’ Uthman answered, ‘May Allah reward you for your good intentions, but I do not want blood to be shed for my cause.’” [Tareekh Damascus, p.403], ‘

If Imam Ali (as) had 500 men on standby then can Abu Sulaiman kindly explain why Imam Ali (as) only sent his sons to protect frail Uthman? Think about logically, your friend’s house has been surrounded by hundreds of angry men demanding his blood. Something needs to be done, your friend needs to be protected. You have access to 500 men to protect your friend, rather than do so you felt that two shall suffice to fight off the mob, does this make sense? states:

Moreover, the sons of ‘Ali and the sons of the Companions participated in the defense of Uthman . Muhamed bin Sireen said, “Al-Hasan, Al-Hussain, Ibn Omar, Ibn Al-Zubayr, and Marwan rushed to the house of Uthman raising their swords. Uthman told them. ‘I order you to go back home, put your swords in their shields, and stay at home.’” [Tareekh Khaleefah Al-Khayyat, p.174]Kunanah, the slave of Safiyah, said, “I witnessed the murder of Uthman . Four young men from Quraysh were taken out from Uthman’s house. These young men were covered by blood, and they were defending Uthman may Allah be pleased at him; Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali, Abdullah bin Al-Zubayr, Muhamed bin Hatib, and Marwan bin Hakam.” [A’asr Al-Khilafah Al-Rashidah by Akram Diya’a Al-Umari, p.390. Al-Umari said that the hadeeth was narrated in Al-Estia’ab with a good authentication]

In this tradition Imam Hasan (as) and Marwan are alleged to have protected Uthman. This conflicts with history due to the fact that when Mu’awiya rebelled against Imam Ali (as), he was accusing Imam Ali (as) of having a hand in the murder. Marwan was one of the key advisers of Mu’awiya and toed the same propaganda line. Imam of Ahle Sunnah Muhammad bin Yahya in al-Tamheed wa’l Bayan fi Maqtal al Shaheed Uthman, page 181, quoted the fact that Marwan had accused Imam Ali (as) of killing Uthman stating:

“If you Ali had not struck the murdered man openly, you surely struck him in secret”.

We read in Ras al-Hussain by Ibn Taiymiah, page 205:

كان طائفة من شيعة عثمان يتهمون عليا بأنه أمر بقتل عثمان

“A group of Uthman’s Shias (followers) accused Ali of giving orders to kill Uthman.”

How could Nawasib such as Marwan have sustained such a lie when as Abu Sulaiman would like us believe that Imam Hasan (as) was standing with him so as to protect Uthman? If this was true then there is no way that Marwan would have been able to mislead supporters into believing Imam Ali (as) had a hand in Uthman’s killing! states:

Al-Masoudi, the Shi’a historian, narrates in his book Murooj Al-Thahab, “When ‘Ali was told that they [the rebels] wanted to kill him [Uthman], he sent his two sons Al-Hasan and Al-Hussain along with his slaves with weapons to Uthman to support him. ‘Ali ordered them to defend Uthman. Al-Zubayr sent his son Abdullah, Talha sent his son Muhamed, and the vast majority of the Companions’ sons were sent by their fathers. They prevented the rebels from entering the house.” [Murooj Al-Thahab, vol.2, p.344]

By calling Masudi a Shia, the Nasibi author is obviously is trying to suggest that he belonged to the Imamiyah or Shia Astha Ashari faith and hence his work is reliable for us, which is a blatant lie. Only a Nasibi can adhere to the logic to suggest that an individual that praises Ahl’ul bayt (as) is Shia (Imamiyah/Rafidhi). It might be difficult for a Nasibi (who in previous writings had extolled his Imam Yazeed) to understand this but actual Sunnis also have love for Imam Ali (as). Al Masudi is a recognized Mutazili / Sunni scholar as recorded by Imam Dahabi (Siar alam alnubala, v15 p569) and even if his faith is criticized by some segments of Nawasib, the work advanced by Masudi in the field of Islamic History is happily accepted by the Ahle Sunnah, this is an established fact, Abu Sulaiman is either ignorant or intentionally lying, judging from his exploits in previous articles the latter seems to be the more stronger option!

Would Imams of Ahle Sunnah, past and present be heaping praise on a Rafidhi writer? One of the beloved scholars of Deobandies Allamah Shibli Numani states clearly in Al-Faruq (English translation) Volume 1 page 9 that:

“…Masudi (died 386 Hijri) is the ‘Father of History’. Islam has not produced a historian equal to him in comprehensive information and width of thought…Has all his historical works been extant, all other attempts in this direction would have been regarded as superfluous, but it is a pity that owing to the corrupted taste of the Muslim nations most of his books are not extant now. Occidental research has, after considerable scrutiny and labor, been able to discover two of his books, namely Muruj-ud-Dhahab and Kitab al Tanbih wal-Ashraf. The former has been printed in Egypt”.
 Al-Faruq (English translation) Volume 1 page 9

As for those Sunnies who call Al-Masudi a Shia, it should be noted that it is said in terms of preferring Ali (as) over Uthman only and nothing else, as recorded by Sunni scholar Ahmad Ibn al-Sidiq in his book Fath al-Malik al-Ali, page 143:

Nay they attributed Darqutni to Shiasm although he is far from it, just because he memorized the poems of Hemayri. Nay they talked about Shafiyee and attributed him to Shiasm just because he agreed with the Shia in some issues in which they (Shias) were right and didn’t innovate in it such as pronouncing Bismilah loudly, performing Qunoot during morning prayer, wearing ring in the right hand and his inclination towards Ahlulbayt, he may Allah be pleased with him pointed to that in his famous poems. And they called al-Masudi weak and attributed him to Shiasm just because of his statement in Muruj al-Dahab: ‘The things which the companions of Allah’s Messenger deserved virtue because it is their preceding to (bring) Iman, migration, support to Allah’s messenger, nearness to Him, conviction and sacrifices by their souls for Him, their knowledge about Quran, Jihad for the sake of Allah, godliness, asceticism, judgment, chastity, knowledge and all that Ali had the biggest share of, beside his (Ali’s) distinction by special virtues such as brotherhood, inclining towards Him (as), status (of Aaron)’

Even if for arguments sake we were to accept that Imam Hasan (as) and Imam Hussain (as) were in Uthman’s quarters, then we would argue that their presence would have only been to protect women and children inside, not Uthman. It is a religious duty to ensure that women and children are not harmed. If Imam ‘Ali (as) mediated to ensure that food and water was sent to Uthman’s house, it was to ensure the well being of the women and children inside, what would be the harm in sending water and food for the children?

Point to Ponder

A revolution of this scale requires a well planned strategy and widespread support. Are we really going to believe a band of rebels were able to organize themselves in such a way as to mount armed opposition to the Khalifa by entering Madina and taking control of the city under the noses of the Banu Ummayya leadership and all the Sahaba (who as Abu Sulaiman alleges) were standing beside Uthman supporting him? So much strength / opposition by a rabble of misfits? No revolution to overthrow a leader is based on the activities of a handful of individuals in a region it requires grass root support at all levels. A movement to topple any leader of a State requires:

  1. Widespread support
  2. The support of the local population
  3. Support of influential figures to give the movement some credibility

This movement could never have been achieved without the support of prominent Sahaba whose voices carried influence and would never have been achieved without the tacit support of the Sahaba living in Madina. Rebellions of this scale can only be achieved when support exists in the city where a leader resides. This is common sense. An individual living in Beirut may be opposed to King Fahad in Madina. Mass opposition and overthrow can only be achieved if these same individuals can convince those living in Riyadh to join them in the struggle. Similarly whilst we have no doubt that the aggrieved Egyptians rebelled against Uthman, you can NOT eliminate the fact that amongst this group were the sons of the Sahaba and Sahaba who were giving their tactical support to the movement.


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